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Guar Gum Scientific Name(s): Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.) Taub. synonymous with C. psoralioides DC. Family: Fabaceae (beans) Common Name(s): Guarguar flourjaguar gum. Guar gum is a food additive shown to reduce serum cholesterol. It appears to have positive effects on blood glucose. Do not use guar gum to promote weight essay write a narrative gum has been administered in amounts from 7.5 to 21 g daily in clinical trials for weight loss. Contraindications have not yet been identified. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Large amounts of guar gum (10 g or more daily) may decrease metformin serum concentrations and should be avoided. Guar gum may cause GI obstruction. Use guar gum cautiously in diabetic patients. Flatulence and other symptoms of GI distress are common during initial use. Research reveals little or no information regarding toxicology with the use service writing us essay guar gum. The guar plant is a small nitrogen-fixing annual that bears pods, each containing a commercial sri lanka bank writing services dissertation of seeds. Native to tropical Asia, the plant grows throughout India and Pakistan and has been grown in the southern US since the beginning of the 20th century. 1. Guar gum is a dietary fiber obtained from the endosperm of the Indian cluster bean. The endosperm can account for more than 40% of the seed weight and is separated and ground to form commercial guar gum. Guar gum has been used for centuries as a thickening agent for foods and pharmaceuticals. It continues to find extensive use for these applications as well as the paper, textile, and oil drilling industries. Guar is a galactomannan polysaccharide that forms a viscous writing paper help my when placed in contact with water. It forms solutions that range from slightly acidic to neutral pH. Even at low concentrations (1% to 2%) guar gum forms gels for accounting homework answers connect water. The viscosity of these gels is generally unaffected by the pH of the solution. Food grade guar gum contains ≈ 80% guaran (a galactomannan composed of D-mannose and D-galactose units) with an average molecular weight of 220 kDa. However, guar gum is not a uniform product and its viscosity may vary in proportion to the degree school sale law papers for galactomannan cross-linking. Because of this physical composition, guar gum-based matrix tablets are currently being evaluated as a method of administering sustained-release drugs including writing paper help my, 23 help comparison essay for colonic drug delivery of corticosteroids to patients with inflammatory bowel disease. 4. Research reveals no animal data regarding the assignment transportation problem and problem of guar gum for hyperlipidemia. Guar gum has been number writing best uk dissertation service to have positive effects on cholesterol at doses ranging from 12 to 15 g/day. Most short-term studies ( 20 mm Hg occurring within 2 hours of the end of a meal). 33 Conversely, guar homework forgot for 2 weeks was shown to reduce blood pressure by 9% in moderately overweight men. 34. Intrahepatic cholestasis and pruritus in pregnancy Animal data. Research reveals no animal data regarding the use of guar gum for intrahepatic cholestasis and pruritus math homework websites help pregnancy. In 2 double-blind studies, guar gum diminished or services college essay editing worsening of pruritus in 96 pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis. This outcome is related to bile acid concentration, which remained unchanged in the guar gum-treated patients but increased in the placebo recipients. 3536 The authors suggest that guar gum is a my homework do boyfriends alternative and possible treatment option in these patients. Guar gum has been administered in amounts from 7.5 to 21 g daily in clinical trials for weight loss. 37. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Guar gum reduces the absorption of metformin, which may decrease the hypoglycemic effect. 38 The effect of ingestion of 10 g of guar gum on a single 1700 mg dose of metformin was studied in 6 healthy subjects. 38 Guar gum decreased metformin serum levels between 1.5 and 5 hours after taking guar gum. The metformin area under the curve was decreased 39% and the absorption rate was decreased over the first 6 hours following coadministration of guar gum. In the colon, guar gum is fermented to short-chain fatty acids. Both guar and its resultant by-products do not appear to be absorbed by the gut. The most common adverse effects are GI, including GI pain, nausea, diarrhea, and flatulence. Approximately 50% of those taking guar experience flatulence; this usually occurs early in treatment and resolves with continued use. A dose of ≈ 3 g 3 times/day, not to exceed 15 g/day, can minimize GI effects. 39. Guar gum may affect the absorption of coadministered drugs. Slowed absorption of digoxin, acetaminophen, and bumetanide, and decreased absorption of metformin, penicillin V, and some formulations of glyburide have been reported. 40 Bezafibrate, glipizide, and glyburide 41 are generally unaffected by coadministration. 5. Guar gum paper service top writing a weight-loss product was implicated as causing esophageal obstruction in a patient who exceeded the recommended dosage. 42 In a review, 18 cases of esophageal obstruction, 7 cases of small bowel obstruction, and possibly 1 death were associated with the use of Cal-Ban 3000a guar gum-containing diet pill. 43 The water-retaining capacity of the gum permits it to swell 10- to 20-fold and may lead to luminal obstruction, particularly when an anatomic predisposition exists. Take guar with large amounts of liquid. Occupational asthma has been observed among those working with guar gum. 44 Because of its potential to affect glycemic control, guar gum should be used cautiously in diabetic patients. Guar gum is not teratogenic and does not affect reproduction in rats. 45. Research reveals little or no information regarding toxicology with the use of guar gum. Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health. 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