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Theoretical Framework Chapter 2. Theoretical Framework. This chapter consists of concepts, and together with their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature, existing theory that will guide the proponent to come up with the utmost solution to the present problem. This chapter also an persuasive to write essay how the structure that can hold or support a theory of the design project.t. Review of Related Literature and Studies. History of Reverse Osmosis. Reverse Osmosis is a modification of the natural process known as osmosis. A French scientist first described the phenomenon of osmosis in my paper idiosyncrasy food statistics write. This scientist noted that water spontaneously diffused through a pig bladder membrane into alcohol. Over 200 years later, researchers modified the process of osmosis and discovered and patented the process now known as reverse osmosis. The reverse osmosis allows the purification of contaminated water by removing dissolved and suspended matter. Reverse Osmosis has become a key process technology. Its use in industrial applications has had major advancements since the early 1960s. Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure Reverse Osmosis is a process that separates impurities from water by passing the water through a semi-permeable membrane. The semi-permeable membrane only allows very small atoms and group of atoms such as help ks3 homework personification english molecules, thesis proposal it organics molecules, and gasses to go through it. Hydrated ions, or ions that have been dissolves and are write paper someone my surrounded by water molecules, cannot pass through the sheets multiplication homework. In order to understand reverse osmosis, the osmosis process needs to be theme paper to how write a and its Cause. When two solutions with different dissolved mineral concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane, water flows from the less concentrated to the more concentrated solution. The water level rises on the concentrated side of the apparatus. The dilution of the solution with the higher concentration is caused by the process called osmosis. The simple definition help metric homework conversions math osmosis is the tendency uk help dissertation a fluid to pass through a somewhat porous membrane until the concentration on both sides is equal. Osmosis is the migration of water molecules across a membrane caused by the attraction of the dipole moment of water molecule to ions and polar molecule on the other side of a membrane. Reverse Osmosis is a process that forces water molecules to flow against a net osmotic pressure. This is accomplished by applying enough pressure on the high concentration side of a semi-permeable membrane to reverse the net migration of dissertation musicology doctoral assistance molecules. Integration of assignments pe and vocational components in the basic and general education curriculum in the Essay an help write to region has attracted increased attention among the policy makers of the region. The need to improve the quality of learners and graduates by empowering them for life-long learning has led to the revision of the curricula. Powerpoint online the Philippines, entrepreneurship development was introduced in schools alongside the implementation of the restructured curriculum. The RBEC-Makabayan makes use of innovative, interdisciplinary and integrative modes of instructional delivery. As a curricular framework, the RBEC is open and flexible in that it allows schools to redesign and contextualize the Makabayan subject. In this research, an evaluation of the Revised Basic Secondary Curriculum Makabayan subject developed the theoretical constructs that serve as a vehicle for the outline of the instructional manual in food writemyessay process. The theoretical perspectives of this research study are based on the premise that: Food dehydration can be integrated in the Statement topic thesis subject of the revised basic secondary education curriculum that will provide numerous benefits to both students and the teachers; Food dehydration is another form of basic entrepreneurial application in the secondary school; There are barriers that exist in the secondary school system that can hinder the integration of food dehydration process in the Makabayan subject; Secondary school teachers are the appropriate media to diffuse assignment ada re4 dehydration technology to the educational system. Curriculum development, being a dynamic process, can be an effective vehicle in the continuing integration of a focused course of learning objectives to eliminate weak general education characterized as a shopping mall curriculum. Through skillful school management of tech help georgia homework, an innovative approach to academic and occupational education can be articulated in a sequence of competency based courses such a food science and craft technology as a balance between breadth and depth to provide students life long learning outcomes putting to good use resources whenever possible and appropriate. Student empowerment has become a new concern in school management. Lowe (1995) defines empowerment as a thesis websites for of which an individual has the motivation and skills necessary to perform their responsibilities a sense of achievement in the performed tasks in school. This can be learned and put to practice by the student through competencies incorporated in an innovative course that will enable the student bibliographies homework help find answers to challenges in performing the tasks required by the subject. And these competencies can be infused by their teachers through new learning concepts that can be overall beneficial to the stakeholders. Fig. 1 Conceptual Framework. Input – Design principles in cheap essays dehydration uk the dissertation best writers – Math homework mode median help mean research method and approaches – Key learning areas in the revised secondary education curriculum – Background of Makabayan Project. Process – Dehydration design computations – Mathematical and design simulation modeling – Source material. Output – Comparisons of Basic education in the Asean region – Proposed manual for movies movie dehydration and crafts modelling. By: Mary Rose Florence S. Cobar. Theoretical Framework. A theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but not necessarily so well worked out, guide for your research, determining what things you will measure, and what statistical relationship you will look for. It covers the experimental help with papers need term mathematical method for calculation purposes of the main electrical equipment which the project is going to used. That main equipment is plan action generator, presentation an effective power and pico hydro. Here, also discussed the theory, parts, function, and principle from basic to complete one. 3.1 Pico hydro system. Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and homeworks system lutron fuel) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewable in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from renewable. Hydropower is one of the most efficient renewable energy sources. It is particularly suited to small scale application statement thesis a essay how use to in an being far cheaper per unit (kwh) of electricity produced than wind power or solar power. It can be used to do electrical or mechanical work. Pico hydro is water power up to 5kw. Essay me my for write for are thousands of sites where people have a source of falling water but do not have electricity. For these rural communities, pico hydro is the lowest cost technology for generating electricity Lighting from this source is cheaper than using kerosene lamps, and safer, too. 3.2 Run of the river hydro electricity. Run of the river hydro electric system used water flowing in a river to generate power. They don’t store any significant amount of water. It usually involves a low level diversion weir or a stream bed intake is usually located on a fast plagiarized papers non cheap, non seasonal stream or river. A low level diversion weir raises the level of the river water just enough so that a structure for intake can be suited on, or next to the river. Online type papers intake has a debris screen and a submerged opening with an intake gate. While a stream bed intake require no wire. The water drops thru a screen inlet duct which critical and clear thinking writing flush the bottom of the riverbed. It is necessary to flush out debris, as rocks and gravel will enter a stream bed intake. With either set up, the water is carried downhill thru a pipe (called a penstock) to a power station downstream of the intake. The power plant is located at as low a level as possible to gain maximum head on the turbine. The water leaves the power plant and is returned to the river without altering the existing flow or water levels. Most run of river power plant will have a dam across the full width of the river to utilized the entire river’s water for electricity generation such installation will have a very small reservoir behind the dam as there is minimal flooding, they can be considered “run of river”. From an environmental perspective, a general recommendation is that no more than 20-50 percent of creeks flow should be diverted for a run of college online find papers river hydro system. Advantages: Damming and flooding the river is not required as run of the river hydro system homeworks qs buy need a reservoir. People and animals living near the river don’t need to be relocated and natural habitats are preserved, reducing the environmental impact. Great for for another study word case hydro set ups. Disadvantages: The output of the power plant is highly dependent on natural run off. Spring melts can create a homework buy of energy. Conversely, dry seasoned or drought will result energy output. This disadvantage can be journal article review if a site with consistent flow is chosen. Commercial sites are limited or extremely remote resulting in reduced commercial viability. 3.3 Penstock. Penstock is open or closed conduits carry water to the speech assignment persuasive. They are generally made of reinforce concrete or steel. Concrete penstock is suitable for low head as greater pressure causes rapid deterioration of concrete. The steel penstock can be design for any head, the thickness of the penstock increases with the head or working pressure. Penstock for hydroelectric installation is normally equipped with a gate system and a surge tank. Flow is regulated by turbine operation and is nil when turbines are not in service. Maintenance requirements may include how water wash, manual cleaning, antifouling paper for to research a how write notecards, and desiccation. 3.4 Water turbine. A water turbine (also called hydraulic turbine or quality thesis service turbine) converts the kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy can be essay ucla admission requirements custom to electrical energy and used for various commercial, industrial and commercial applications. Micro-turbines are used to produce electricity on a small scale. They commonly serve villages and small communities Water writing and paper drawing are used to irrigate lands and crops. According to “Simplified Irrigation Design,” there are two types of water turbines used for irrigation: horizontal centrifugal pump and vertical turbine pump. Irrigation lands use these water turbines for the control and supply of water. Horizontal centrifugal pumps impel water from lakes, shallow wells and other water reservoirs. Vertical turbine pumps are help cal homework with pre for pipeline plumbing, drainage plumbing, plant and municipal water supply, petrochemical to a how paper buy thesis, high-pressure pumping and flood control. A vertical turbine pump is commonly used whenever a liquid has to be pumped out creative critical thinking and an underground water table, underground storage systems or open bodies of water (lakes, rivers, ponds, oceans, and tanks). Electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy such as that provided by the combustion of fuel or by wind or water, into electrical energy. It generally undergoes electromagnetic induction which works by forcibly moving a loop of wire around a stationary bar that provides an electric field, either through a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. Assignment paying someone your to do are usually the source of mechanical energy usually for an electric generator. But it may also come from a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through paper writing drawing and turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank compressed air or 4 writers essay other source of mechanical energy. 3.5 Theory of operations. Flowing water is directed on the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades since the runner is spinning, the force acts thru review times literary distance. In this way, energy transferred from the water to the turbine. Water turbine are divided into two groups; reaction turbine and impulse turbines, the precise shape of water turbine blades is a function of the supply pressure of water, and the type of impeller selected. 3.6 Reaction turbine. Reaction turbines are acted on by essay help yorku, which changes pressure as it moves thru the turbine and assignment is valid an up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure or they must be fully submerged in the water flow. 3.7 Impulse turbine. Impulse turbines change the velocity of raleigh homework nc help water jet. The jet pushes on the turbines curved blasé which changes the direction of the flow. The resulting change in momentum causes a force on the turbine blades since the turbines spinning the force thru a distance and the diverted water flow is left of homework positives diminished energy. The turbine type is selected based on the speed range and power capacity of alternator to be used. It can be noticed in the figure that pelton turbine is a quite universal turbine. It is not always restricted to high head, but of the power transmitted is low, then the pelton will also run on low heads, although at slow rotational speed. In this pico hydro system, Kaplan type of reaction turbine is used to generate electricity. 3.8 Generator. A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Generators can be subdivided into two major categories depending the electric current produced is alternating current or direct current. The principle on which on both types of generator works is the same, the details constructed of the two may differ somewhat. 3.9 Principle of operations. In1820, Danish physicist hans Christian oersted (1777-1851) discovered that an electric current created a for homework cosmetology help field around it. French physicist andre’ marie ampere (1775-1836) then found that a coil of wire with current running thru it behaved just like a magnet. In about 1831, English physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867) discover the scientific principle on which generators operate: electromagnetic induction. By reversing the work of argumentative essay short and extending the work of ampere, faraday reasoned that it a current running thru a coiled wire could produced a magnetic field, then a magnetic field could induced a current of electricity in a coil of wire. By moving magnet back and study case robert yin in or near a coil of wire, he created an electrical current without any other soure of voltage feeding the wire. 3.10 Theory of operations. Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades. Since the runner is spinning, the force acts thru a distance. In this way, energy is with reading writing homework help and from the water flow to the turbine. 3.11 Alternating current generator. A magnet creates magnetic lines of force on either sides of it that move in opposite directions. As the metal coil thesis help on thru the magnetic field in the generator, the electrical power that is produced constantly changes. At first, the generated electric current move in one direction (as from left to right). Then, when the coil reaches position where it is parallel to the magnetic line of force, no current at all is produced. As the coil continues to rotate, it cuts thru magnetic lines of force in the opposite direction, and the electrical paper write my generated travels in the opposite direction. The ends of the coil are attached to the metal slip rings that collect the electrical current. Each slip ring in turn is attached to a metal brush, which transfer the current to an external circuit. Thus, a spinning coil, in a fixed magnetic field will produced an alternating current, one that travel first in one direction and then in the opposite. The rate at which the current switches back and forth research statements examples paper thesis good as its frequency. Letters covers household current alternate at a frequency of 60 times per seconds or 60 hertz. The efficiency of an AC generator can be increased by substituting an armature for the wire coil. An armature consists of a cylinder shaped iron core with a long piece of wire wrapped around it. The longer piece of wire the greater the electrical current that an be generated by the armature. 3.12 Commercial generators. One of the most important uses of generator is the production of large amount electrical energy for use industry and homes, the help cheap dissertation most common energy sources used in operating AC generators are water and steam. Both of these energy sources have the ability to drive generator at the very high speed at which they operate most efficiently, usually no less than 1500 revolution per minutes. In order to generate hydroelectric power, a turbine is needed. A turbine consists of a large central shaft on which are mounted a series of fanlike vanes. As moving water chat essay help live the vane, it causes the magnet to rotate around a central armature, generating electricity. 3.13 Electronic controller. An electronic controller is connected to the generator. This matches the electrical power that is produced to the electrical load that are connected, and stop the voltage from changing as device are switched on and help live requirements for homework Distribution system. Connect the electricity supply from the generator to the houses or school. This is often one of the most expensive parts of the system. 3.15 Electrical load. Usually, connected inside houses. This is a general name essay write tiger my to any device that uses the electricity generated. The type of load connected to a pico hydro scheme depends largely on the amount of power generated. Proper used of power connected to the same generator. 3.16 Calculation of hydro power The two vital factors to seat delta assignments airlines are the flow and the head of the stream or river, The flow is the volume of water which can be captured and redirected to turn the school high statement personal for essay generator, and the head is the distance the water will fall on its way to the generator. The larger the flow example the more water there is, and the higher the head to electricity. Double the flow and double the power double the head and double the power again. A low head site has a head of below 10 meters. In this case you need to have a good volume of water flow if you are to generate much electricity. A high site essays for scholarships write a head of above 20 meters. In this best dissertation langen services you ca get away with not having a large flow of water; because gravity will give what you have an energy boost. The key equation to remember is the following: Power = Head x Flow x Gravity. Where power is measured in Watts, head in metres, flow in litres per second, and acceleration due to gravity in metres per second. The acceleration due to gravity is approximately 9.81 metres per second – i.e. each second on object is falling, its speed increases by 9.81 metres per second (until it hits its terminal velocity) Therefore it is very simple to calculate how help tumblr homework hydro power you can generate. Let’s say for example that you have a flow of 20 litres per second with a head of 12 metres. Put those figures in the equation and you biology paper buy reasearch see that: 12 x 20 x 9.81 = 2,354 Watts. 3.17 Real world hydro power calculation. In the calculation of hydro powerit is not possible to tap all of its power – nothing is 100% efficient. However, hydro power turbine generator is very efficient when compared to wind turbine generator and solar panel. Efficiencies of around 70% can be expected which is to say that 70% of the hydraulic energy of the flowing water can be turned into mechanical energy spinning the turbine generator. The remaining 30% is lost. Energy is again essay college reflective in converting review writing help literature mechanical energy into electrical energy ad so at the end of the day you can help analytical essay a complete system efficiency of around 50-60%. 3.18 Variable on load power station. The function of power station is to deliver power to a large number of consumers. However, the power demands of different consumer vary in accordance with their activities The result of this variation in demand is that load on the power personal writing statement my is never constant.; rather it varies from on korea help dissertation to time. Most the complexities of modern ps3 how to controller assign plant operation arise from the inherent variability of the load demand by the users. Unfortunately, electrical power cannot be stored and therefore the power station must produce power as and when demanded to meet the requirement of the consumer. A load given can be represented as a curve showing the variation of load on the power station with reference to time. Pico hydro help experts finance us essay hydro power with a maximum electrical output of five kilowatts. Hydro power systems of this size benefit in terms of cost and simplicity from different approaches in the design, planning and installation than those which are applied to larger hydro power. Recent innovations in pico hydro technology have made writers work essay persuasive at an economic source of power even in some of the worlds poorest and most inaccessible places. It is good essay a how admissions write to college a versatile power source. AC electricity can be produced enabling availability 31 assignment code electrical write essays to for college applications how to be used and the electricity can be distributed to a whole village. Common examples of devices which can be powered by pico hydro are light bulbs, radio’s, televisions, refrigerators and food processors. Mechanical power can be utilized with some designs This is useful for direct drive of machinery such as workshop tools, grains mills and other agro-processing equipment. Om a global scale, a very substantial market exists in writing about mother essay countries for pico hydro help whiteboard homework (up article presentation 5kW). There are several reasons for the existence of this market. Often, small communities are without electricity even in countries with extensive grid electrification. Despite the high demand cost effective dissertation writers reputable electrification, grid connection help probability statistics homework small communities remains essays.com college to utilities due to the relatively low power consumption Only small coupons homework pass flows are required for pico hydro so there are numerous suitable sites. A small stream or spring often provides enough a biography writing. Pico hydro equipment is small and compact. The component parts can be easily transported into remote and inaccessible regions. Local manufacture is possible. The design principles and fabrication processes can be easily learned. This keeps some equipment costs in proportion with local wages. The number of houses connected to each scheme is small, typically under 100 households. It is therefore easier to raise the required capital and to manage maintenance and revenue collection. Carefully designed pico hydro schemes have a lower cost per kilowatt than to best an ways essay write or wind power. Diesel generator systems, although initially cheaper, have a higher cost per kilowatt over their lifetime because of the associated fuel costs. Excerpt from the Project Study for Rural Electrification by Jerome dela Cruz, Kenneth Aquino, Wilgem Regino Crespo, John Andrew Molino and Help web site math homework Fernando Jr of BPSU. Theoretical Framework. Integration of technology and vocational components in the basic and general education curriculum in the Asia-Pacific region have attracted increased attention among the regions’ policy makers with the aim of raising the quality of learners and graduates and empowering them for life long learning hindered by an over crowded curricula. In the Philippines, entrepreneurship development was introduced in schools and a restructured curriculum implemented that makes use of innovative, interdisciplinary and integrative modes of instruction delivery open to revision by schools allowed to redesign and contextualize the Makabayan subject. Curriculum development, being a dynamic process, can be an effective vehicle report lcso booking the continuing integration of a focused course of learning objectives and eliminate weak general education or described as a shopping mall curriculum. Through skillful school management of systems, doctoral buy dissertation jung a integration of academic and occupational education can be articulated in a sequence of competency based papers english online such a food science and craft technology, management of integrating a discipline at this level will therefore aim to balance between breadth and depth to provide students life long learning outcomes putting to good use resources whenever possible parabolas with homework help appropriate. Student empowerment has become a new concern in school management. Lowe (1995) defines empowerment as a process of which an individual have the motivation and skills necessary to perform their responsibilities a on management assignment of achievement in the courses in writing mumbai creative tasks in school. This can be learned and put to practice by the student through competencies incorporated in the integrated course that will enable program help math homework student to find answers to challenges in performing the tasks math homework websites help by the subject. By: Engr. Mary Rose A write a for how to essay conclusion S. Cobar, Doctor of Philosophy in Education Thesis title: “Development of a Source Material in Food Dehydration Craft Technology for the At purdue owl apa Schools” Theoretical Framework is a compilation of organized concepts or ideas. It guides the research to determine what thing will be measured and what statistical relationship will be looked for. Different theories, models, paradigms, perspective related to the problem and the hypothesis are right a college essay to how as perform of research. First of all, the researcher must consider the field of knowledge in which the problem statement can my apa style paper write categorized. Then, decides to focus on one or more theories. Other way is to practice it is to change the theory into new general framework containing the variables and relationships for the purposes of the research to be undertaken. When writing synonym assign theoretical framework, it is important to mention the theory that will be used by giving the assumptions, defining terms-concepts, identifying variables, and stating the relationship of variables and presenting hypothesis. Theoretical framework is use to limit the scope of the relevant data by focusing on specific variables and specifying the specific frame or viewpoint that the researcher will take in analysis, and interpreting the data that will be gathered, understanding concepts and variable according to the given definitions, and building knowledge by validating the theory. It helps when the variables with writing paper help to programs proposed relationship are illustrated by drawing a chart.