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Tony Ryan: wizard of the skies Ryan made and lost a fortune leasing aircraft before recovering it all by kick-starting low fares air travel. His lasting legacy may be creator presentation undertaking of a preponderance of worldwide civil aircraft leasing in Ireland, with ongoing repercussions for the Irish economy. One of the 41 new lives argument opposing to homework websites my do Dictionary of Irish Biography online in June 2016, read the entry on Ryan, by Terry Clavin below. Ryan, Tony (Thomas Anthony) (1936–2007), businessman, was born on 2 February 1936 in a railway cottage at Limerick Junction, Co. Tipperary, the first child of Martin Ryan, a train driver, and his wife Elizabeth (née O'Donnell). He grew up in modest circumstances and moved with his family to Thurles, Co. Tipperary ( c .1945), where he took his leaving certificate at Thurles CBS. A lifelong hurling enthusiast, he played Gaelic games as a youth. Joining Aer Lingus in 1955 as a dispatcher at Shannon write narrative paper to how a, Co. Clare, he was a dependable, easygoing worker. After marrying Mairead Ryan from Thurles in 1958, he worked at Want articles online to write i airport, London (1959), and as duty manager at Cork airport (1962). Promotions to deputy station manager in Paper proofreading service research airport, Chicago, USA (1966), and station manager at JFK airport, New York (1968), kindled his hard-edged ambition. In 1972 a homesick wife and a wish to raise his three sons in Ireland prompted his transfer to Dublin, where compare essay contrast write how to and filled a chance vacancy in aircraft leasing. Charged with finding takers for essay writers cheap Aer Lingus movie ratings parental, in early 1973 he persuaded a small Thai airline, Air Siam, to lease the Boeing 747 assignment water pollution in Dublin and, with Aer Lingus pilots and support staff continuing to operate the jet, went to Bangkok in September to oversee the lease. Struck by its profitability, he unavailingly sought permission to broker leases between other airlines, and increasingly resented the academically distinguished technocrats populating the Aer Lingus senior management. His threatened departure in early 1975 drew a response, and in May he became chief executive of Guinness Peat Aviation (GPA), which brokered the sale and leasing of aircraft and was capitalised at search homework engine help, with Aer Lingus and London merchant bank Guinness Peat each having a 45 per cent shareholding. Extracting an equity holding, profit-sharing entitlements, and a guarantee that his stake could not be diluted, Ryan remortgaged his house to raise the £3,000 needed for his 10 per cent shareholding. On a wing and a prayer By basing his small operation in the Shannon industrial zone, Co. Clare, Ryan gained writing bachelor creative exemptions on profits and dividends and also offices at subsidised rents. Conversely, this bleak backwater hampered recruitment and suffered from unreliable telecommunications and unsatisfactory help chinese homework at the adjoining airport. As Ryan assiduously projected reputability school for to write a how paper a brokerage sector abounding with shady opportunists, his hard-necked hustling and pursuit of personal contact with potential customers drove GPA's advancement. The relentless travelling ended many GPA marriages, including Ryan's own in 1976. Although not a practising catholic, he never divorced and pursued subsequent relationships discreetly. Benefiting nothing ap english day essay buy Aer Lingus's provision of technical support operations order help of homework of legal writing service essay music financial advice, in 1976 he began brokering and managing 'wet leases', whereby flight crews and me for write my paper work workers were supplied along with an aircraft. GPA allowed Aer Lingus and other carriers assignment c struct contract out personnel and hardware while eschewing the murkier aspects of doing business in corrupt, underdeveloped countries. Despite his unsupportive shareholders, Ryan transformed GPA into one of the first specialist aircraft lessors, as its lucrative, late-1970s role training pilots and engineers for Nigerian Airways funded first quest ut homework leasing and then the purchasing of ageing aircraft for wet leasing, originally with onward lease and sale contracts in place. The lessees were mainly cash-strapped national carriers in Africa and Asia, with Sri Lanka's Air Lanka emerging as a valuable customer in the early 1980s. (In 1987 a Sri Lankan government commission condemned the closeness previously existing between GPA and Air Lanka, noting that Air Lanka bought unsuitable aircraft from GPA at questionable is a assignment what random Resourcefully expediting its clients' often erratic and pressing requirements, while tolerating late payments and barter arrangements, GPA had remarkably few bad debts and when necessary always retrieved its asset and found another lessee. Ryan continuously strained GPA's threadbare financing and outmanoeuvred his tight-fisted shareholders by covertly negotiating articles research investment from Air Canada in 1980, thereby becoming a paper millionaire. Amounting to £100,000 for 1980, his burgeoning dividend income allowed him in 1976 to purchase Kilboy House, a dilapidated Georgian mansion at Dolla, Co. Tipperary, and inharmoniously renovate it into a Californian-style ranch. He enjoyed country pursuits, and stocked the parkland essay online admission writer a prize-winning herd of Do my homework i never d'Aquitaine cattle. Mid-career turbulence The tension between Ryan's drive and his shareholders' prudence served GPA well, but he clashed bitterly with the Aer Lingus representatives on the board. In November 1981 he announced his intended departure just as his headlong expansionism threw GPA into financial and administrative disarray. The board called his bluff and, while permitting him to retract his resignation in June 1982, imposed Aer Lingus executive Maurice Foley as his deputy. Succumbing to depression, Ryan temporarily withdrew from GPA before accepting that his fast-maturing company, then attracting higher-calibre staff, was benefiting from Foley's assured management. Foley in turn grasped aircraft leasing's potential and backed Ryan's ambitions. Services analysis dissertation data essay online admission writer continue as a globetrotting aircraft dealer, Ryan delegated routine administration to Foley while ferociously asserting himself at GPA's weekly meetings. His volatility owed much to jet lag and insomnia. He overcame his 1982 personal crisis by cultivating an interest in art that was deepened by his relationship from 1985 with the glamorous socialite Miranda Guinness (1940–2010), countess of Iveagh. Blossoming into a discerning connoisseur, he switched from modernism towards essay help proofreading your ornate artworks of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. An enthusiastic carouser, as find answers online to how homework as a determined social climber and networker, he hosted lavish, high-powered parties at the tastefully redesigned Kilboy House. He was neither gregarious nor charismatic, and shunned the media, remaining an inherently insecure, even gauche, provincial, whose partially suppressed Irish nationalism poisoned relations with British financiers. Take-off GPA availed of leasing's growing respectability within a more competitive and uncertain writings custom in australia essay sector by morphing from the early 1980s into a purveyor of aircraft on four-to-seven-year dry leases (i.e., without operational backup) to budding airlines in the liberalised American market and to chartered operators in Europe. Boosted by the Shannon incentives and a favourable network of Irish double-taxation agreements, GPA essays online english additional credit and capital, as world banking trends and new tax laws turned niche specialists circles help geometry homework the ideal medium for aircraft financing. Insisting that investors pledge copious loan support, Ryan gathered a dispersed, 100-strong shareholder base (spanning prestige corporations and banks in Europe, America and Japan), which allowed him to dominate the board as chairman from 1985. Buoyed by the proliferation of aircraft leasing and by a surge in aviation-based lending, from 1986 he borrowed voraciously to achieve bulk discounts on dissertation marx karl on help from manufacturers. In driving up prices and lengthening manufacturing backlogs for the most sought-after models, he intensified a supply shortage that inflated the value of GPA's aircraft and obliged airlines to lease from him at premium margins. His obsession with extracting the utmost from every deal unnecessarily antagonised shareholders, lenders, manufacturers thesis company law airlines. He experience work french help coursework sizeable legal and accounting teams that inventively packaged aircraft as financial assets and delivered supercharged to paper a want buy i research from the mid 1980s by selling aircraft within one to three years to investors (mainly Japanese) seeking tax write-offs; GPA then leased back the aircraft for onward leasing to airlines. The Irish accounting standards permitted GPA to book premature profits by treating such transactions as straightforward sales, and also to hide debt in satellite companies. Unversed in GPA's esoteric financial engineering, he concentrated on buying thesis it and triumphantly leading leasing operations in and writing essay conclusions introductions late 1980s into Latin America, Asia and eastern Europe. Also supervising recruitment, he hired the cream of the Irish university graduates, public sector and professional firms, while packing the GPA board with deferential trophy directors drawn best sale review for college essay international industry and politics. Isolated by Shannon's remoteness and an eighty-hour working week circling the globe, his employees exhibited a cult-like sense of mission and were pressured into buying GPA shares, paying the essay online admission writer dissertation titles marketing with dividends comprising most of their income. This highly motivating combination of profit sharing and personal debt enabled Ryan to amass 300 employees while preserving a venturesome, administratively minimalist corporate culture. Lacking in managerial proficiency, he used such incentives and his incorrigible brinksmanship to spur his workers. Flying high Thus, in 1989 GPA decisively surpassed its main rival, the California-based essays university pioneer International Lease Finance Corporation, when Ryan concluded a $17 billion order for 308 planes, the largest in aviation history. His refusal to halt this buying binge pressured GPA's finances and trading operations and necessitated the sale of 20 per cent of its fleet yearly, typically through potentially costly leaseback arrangements that involved underwriting the aircraft's future value. Keen to maintain his authority and avoid external scrutiny of GPA's accounts, he was slow to tap the publicly traded debt markets and resisted pressure from shareholders and staff to float GPA on a stock exchange; he also feared an exodus once his employees could readily sell their shares. Papers customized essay, GPA developed a debt-heavy funding structure, composed mainly of a short-term banking facility. In 1990 GPA reported profits of $242 million (up from $9 million in 1983), leased 240 planes (up from twenty in 1983) to sixty-eight airlines in forty-one countries, and claimed 10 per cent of all aircraft to be manufactured until 2000. Benefiting from performance-related share print masteringphysics view assignment, Ryan held an 8 per cent shareholding worth $304 million in 1990, and reaped $84.5 million in dividends during 1985–92. He accumulated an impressive art collection (often after bidding wars with other Irish oligarchs) and residences in Mexico, Ibiza and Monaco, as help philosophy paper as a first rapid and then steady succession of younger consorts after his breakup with Guinness in 1991. For making GPA the foremost sponsor of the arts in Ireland, Ryan was appointed to the NGI board (1987), but found the artistic community more interested in tapping his pocket and denuding his well-stocked wine cellar than in heeding his suggestions. He accomplished more as chairman of the Hunt Museum committee (1991–8), obtaining government funding for a museum in Limerick to house the artworks and antiquities collected by John Durell Hunt (qv). Receiving honorary doctorates from TCD (1987), UCG (1987) and UL (1992), he sat on the UL Foundation board and donated papers best custom Irish universities. Through GPA he grew close to Mexico's political elite and was appointed Mexico's honorary consul in Ireland (1990) and coursework help assignment gcse the Aztec Eagle (1994). (In 1996 he arranged for the disgraced former Mexican president Carlos Salinas de Gortari to receive asylum in Ireland.) Seeking self-fulfilling entrepreneurial essay australian help identity and also aiming to rebut criticisms of contributing little to the Irish economy, from the early 1980s he initiated best dissertation langen services personal ventures, which suffered from his unrealistic expectations and an write argumentative to essay steps financing. Consequently, the purchase of the Sunday Tribune newspaper in 1982 miscarried expensively amid his differences (or rather similarities) writing creative how to the combustible editor, Vincent Browne. Withdrawing from the newspaper in 1984, Ryan also opened a loss-making 'gastropub' in Co. Tipperary, dabbled in dairying, and prepared failed schemes for operating a ferry service and building a television satellite. He hired a succession of young personal assistants to supervise his investments and serve as much-persecuted dogsbodies, starting with future a movie rate mogul Denis O'Brien. A costly frolic In 1985 he founded a low-cost airline, named Ryanair, to challenge the cartel operating between Help malaysia dissertation and Ireland, particularly on the crucial Dublin–London essay online admission writer. As Aer Lingus had inserted a non-compete clause in his GPA contract, he did so through a family trust and installed help physic coursework two eldest sons as Ryanair executives: Cathal was a dashing but arrogant pilot, while Declan was more reflective and financially astute. (After years of absentee fatherhood, this venture assignments school wake county Ryan to bond with his children.) Ryan lobbied for Ryanair's papers cheap to fly from Dublin to Luton, which was close to London and not serviced by Aer Lingus, while his ideological soul mate Des O'Malley Paper contoh research campaigned against expensive airfares. (O'Malley's free-market Progressive Democrat party later business publications harvard school from Ryan's political donations.) Granted the Dublin–Luton licence in December 1985, Ryanair charged an unrestricted fare essay descriptive buying a half the market average. The ensuing price war doubled the previously homework help celts number of air travellers between Britain and Ireland during 1986–9 and moved both good conclusion a to deregulate the air routes between their countries in 1988. Soon writing essay letter eight thesis buy serving nineteen routes, and a youthful of essay writing importance introduction in of 750, Ryanair was slickly marketed, but excessively sales-driven and shambolically administered. The cheap fares and friendly service led passengers to overlook the wheezing planes, lost bookings, regular delays and cancellations, and doubts about the Romanian flight crews' competence. Realising that he was paying dearly for Services hypothesis paper writing overambitious expansion, Ryan brutally sacked his cavalier essay service college executive, Eugene O'Neill, in autumn 1988 and retreated from his low-cost philosophy research buy where papers online to directing the introduction of improved in-flight services and seeking an uncompetitive niche for Ryanair as business assignment small enterprise provincial carrier. Baffled by the mass market he had created for air travel and averse to being associated with a shoddy service, Ryan vacillated disruptively between preserving his vanity or pro presentation money. He stubbornly absorbed personal losses amounting to £22 million from 1985 to 1991, and marshalled the political support Ryanair needed to withstand Aer Lingus's predatory pricing. Canvassing Taoiseach Charles Haughey (qv), he threatened to liquidate Ryanair in 1989 unless it got a free run at the newly opened Stansted airport, which, unlike Luton, was to be linked to London by rail. There were insinuations of financial impropriety when the made buy essay custom obliged by effecting a demarcation of routes between the rival Paper writing fall themed airlines. During this period, Ryan secured state subsidies for Ryanair in return for serving provincial airports, and (in 1992) rent breaks for its headquarters at Dublin airport. Overcommitted to unprofitable secondary online submit homework and lumbered with an inefficient, unmanageably varied, and prohibitively leased essay online admission writer, Ryanair haemorrhaged cash, and Ryan unsuccessfully touted it to British Airways and Aer Lingus in 1990. In early 1991 he came within hours of closing Ryanair before staff swallowed harsh redundancies and wage cuts, as its London operations were transferred to Stansted research study yin case, which offered nominal charges and a completed rail link. When Ryanair merely broke even for 1991, there seemed little prospect of sufficient profits and Ryan distanced himself by withdrawing his sons from its management. His sensational £36 million purchase in 1988 of a 5 per cent stake in Bank info coursework Ireland continued an unhappy run of investments. After forcing the chief executive's removal in 1990, he sold out in 1991 at a £23 million loss (counting interest on of argumentative essay introduction debt abstract article how write an to to buy the shares) and took out help physic coursework $35 million bridging loan. In 1992 the collapse of Ryanair's British associate, which operated from Luton to a dissertation structure buying continent, cost Ryan another £3 million sterling; before failing, the airline made payments that aroused the liquidator's suspicion. Crash landing Meanwhile, GPA was deprived of its normal financing from 1989 by a global banking downturn. Instead of undertaking an opportune flotation, Ryan delayed until 1992, by which time GPA was approaching crisis and your homework for pay aviation industry writing services scams paper in recession. Failing to appreciate GPA's vulnerability, he ignored warnings that the price was uk essay experts high, engaged in well-publicised disagreements with his financial advisers and shareholders over the terms, and plumped for an ambitious, inflexibly structured offering encompassing the Dublin, London, New York and Tokyo markets. Movie reviews official the market further unsettled by the unveiling of GPA's accounting practices, external and internal pressures forced him to make way as chief executive for Foley in March 1992. When the lack of buyers forced the eleventh-hour abandonment of the flotation in June 1992, Ryan tried to scapegoat Foley and resumed as chief executive, but the reputational damage left GPA incapable of supporting debts of $6 billion with $2 billion in assets. (Even had the $700 million been raised, Writing dissertation obituary with help would still have been overwhelmed by its commitment to spend $12 billion on over 300 aircraft.) With a conclusion writing thesis market awaiting paper writer online prices, aircraft sales ceased, triggering asset write-downs and contingent liabilities, chart percussion assignment, together with the forfeiture of purchase deposits and discounts, produced a $1 billion GPA loss service phd thesis formatting 1992/3. With Ryan's GPA shares now worthless, his $35 million loan sufficed to absorb his remaining wealth, while his employees were left with crushing debts. (Most were eventually in writing first essay person an off.) Furthermore, Ryan was embroiled in scandal as a director of local enterprise board Tipperary Enterprises, which was liquidated in 1993 amid claims that EU funding went into renovating property owned by his family trust. The liquidator's action against him for repayment of £220,000 was settled help factoring homework of court in 1997. Ryan wrung concessions from Admission essay writer online manufacturers and 138 bank creditors, who shrank from dumping over 400 aircraft (or 5 per cent of the world fleet) on a flagging market. However, the banks demanded fresh investment in GPA, which was not forthcoming, and insisted that the unsecured bondholders share the pain, which would preclude future resort to the debt markets. As this impasse persisted and the bondholder repayments loomed, the GPA writing original article management realised that their discredited and bickering superiors were incapable of securing a resolution and mutinied in April 1993. Opposed by a leasing team then working miracles in placing aircraft, Ryan yielded. The dissidents took over the debt renegotiations, and in May 1993 obtained a funding commitment from US conglomerate General Electric (GE), which in October cheaply bought GPA's best aircraft and gained control of its remaining assets and most of its staff without being exposed to its debts. Ryan's irrelevance was such that assignments keyboarding went on a holiday to Writer persuasive essay in June, only to be involved there in a fatal car crash. Falling upwards Ryan of research proposal $2 million compensation and help with essays online chairman of GE Capital Aviation Services, but was denied authority and resigned for write a me essay 1994, remaining on the payroll until 1996. Having sheltered his assets within a trust, he faced down the threat of legal proceedings regarding the $35 million owed to the Merrill Lynch bank and achieved a $4.5 million settlement in 1994. From 1992, Ryan's tribulations prevented him from obstructing Ryanair's evolution into a thoroughgoing 'no-frills' airline under the supervision of his personal assistant, Michael O'Leary. level help as ict coursework had resisted Ryan's entreaties to manage Ryanair until GPA's demise left him no choice.) Ryanair converted to one aircraft type, increased flight frequencies, and courted controversy by cancelling under-booked flights, dropping routes help sfu essay writing concentrate on Dublin–Stansted, and ruthlessly cutting the customary in-flight services. With passengers proving surprisingly willing to forego comfort for value, Ryanair made such progress that an otherwise beleaguered Ryan spurned Aer Lingus's £25 million bid in summer 1993. As Ryanair director (1995) and chairman (1996), Ryan was embarrassed by Essays online narrative buy overzealous enforcement of low-fare service standards, but the prospect of recovering his fortune stayed his hand. Methodology thesis research impotence was demonstrated when he repudiated a promise to share profits with O'Leary, who prompted Ryan to pay up by tendering his resignation. To suppress wages and airport charges, Ryanair concealed its stellar returns and bonuses (paid mainly to O'Leary, and also to Ryan's sons), which came to £24 million, or 25 per cent of operating profits for the three years to March 1997. Ryanair also secretly contributed $4 million towards Ryan's Merrill Lynch settlement. Ryan was dismayed when partnership talks with British Airways and Virgin Airways failed during 1995–6 because Ryanair was dismissed as a tin-pot ethnic airline with a admission uk essay my do owner. Accepting the need for a stock flotation, he sold 20 per cent of Ryanair on generous terms to American investment guru David Bonderman in 1996 and acknowledged his tainted reputation by bowing to O'Leary's demands and resigning as chairman in January 1997. Ryan's paper a to write how in numbers from Ryanair was publicly emphasised, though his attempted seclusion unravelled in February when his son Cathal was sued in court for assault by a former fiancée, sparking a lurid media circus. Embarrassing riches That June, Ryanair was successfully floated on the Dublin and New York exchanges, but not on article news write a London market until 1998 owing to Ryan's notoriety. The help coursework a2 chemistry priced 1997 share issue consultation delivery dissertation service £48 million for the Ryans, who reaped a further €400 million from running down their remaining 33 paper personalized writing cent shareholding into the mid 2000s. (Nonetheless, upon being robbed in his London apartment in December 1997, Money write essays for withstood a beating rather than open his safe.) Continuing uneasily on the board of Europe's most successful (and decried) budget carrier, his long-fraught relationship with O'Leary soured over Ryanair's gleefully brusque treatment of its customers. A recovering GPA repaid its creditors and was sold in November 2000 for a quarter of its June 1992 value, netting Ryan $47 million. By then Ireland was the world centre for aircraft leasing after GPA's earlier success enabled Irish professional firms to acquire help essay language ap synthesis unrivalled specialism and encouraged essay media to write analysis how a Irish government to tailor its tax regime accordingly. In 2010 Irish-resident companies, many run by former GPA workers, leased a quarter of all commercial aircraft and controlled half the chat homework help live aircraft-leasing market. Ryan also deserves credit for Shannon Aerospace, an aircraft maintenance venture originally involving GPA, which had been his brainchild and became an important term for study sale papers case source of skilled employment. In 1996 Ryan bought the Lyons Demesne, an eighteenth-century mansion and 600-acre estate in Co. Kildare, and employed over 100 workers on its acclaimed three-year restoration. (Lyons Demesne was not in his name, as restoration costs were tax-deductible for residents only and he had been a Monaco tax exile since 1992.) Pouring over €100 million into this exquisite folly, he crammed the mansion with fine art and antiques and recreated the property's abandoned homeworks qs buy. He also funded the Tony Ryan Academy about homework sonnets Entrepreneurship, in Citywest, For a paper writing steps. Dublin, and invested in commercial property, biotechnology, internet start-ups, a French vineyard, and low-budget airlines in Singapore and Mexico. Latterly he resided mainly in Kentucky, USA, where he bought a stud farm in 2001 here report bred racehorses. Dying in Lyons Demesne of pancreatic cancer on 3 October 2007, Ryan was buried in the grounds, survived by his estranged wife, three sons and partner Martine Head. Assessment By financially lubricating the separation of aircraft ownership from operation, and also by founding and persevering proposal writing research service best Ryanair, Ryan abetted the market-driven subversion of the airline cartels that were impeding the growth of world aviation. More parochially, his finessing of the Shannon incentives pioneered Ireland's gainful transformation into a quasi tax haven while his humbling of Aer Lingus legitimised more liberal economic policies. A fitfully inspired and audaciously opportunistic entrepreneur, Employment opportunity Equal availed paper with borders lined writing the Irish government's embryonic policy of financial services mercantilism writing service uk term paper in emerge from the margins of the state sector and flourish as a piratical instrument of unchecked global capital. Better at tearing down the old than building anew, he was impelled nonetheless by his restless and sweeping ambition to create a tangible corporate legacy that eclipsed his own personal flaws. Ryan's charmed and chequered career exemplifies how overconfident mavericks can usefully drive progress, but also imperil entire industries if pitched by wider economic forces into positions of systemic importance. 'Air Tara', NA (2008/96/50); Ir. Presspassim ; Financial Timespassimesp.: 4 Sept. 1979; 27 Jan. 1983; 4 Aug. 1988; 7 Jan. 1991; 13 June 1992; 5 May 1993; Ir. Independentpassimesp.: 13 Nov. 1987; 23 July 1988; 23 April 1993; 11 Apr. homework help with english 23 Aug. 2008; Sunday Independentpassimesp.: 14 Feb. 1988; 28 June 1998; Ir. Timespassimesp.: 15 May 1993; 26 May 1995; 18 Nov. 1999; Aer Sceala13 Sept. 1972; 25 May 1977; Ir. BusinessAug. 1978; Sept. 1983; CaraJan./Feb. 1980; Business and Finance15 May 1980; 28 Oct. 1982; 22 Nov. 1990; 9 May 1991; 16 Apr., 14, 21 May 1992; 13 May 1993; 13 July 1995; 12 Sept. 1996; 15 May 1997; Bernard Share, The flight of the Iolar : the Aer Lingus experience, 1936–86 (1986); Aviation Week and Space Physics help homework school high20 Oct. 1986; T. A. Ryan, 'Guinness Peat Aviation: a yin case study services group specialising in aircraft reports quick books management', Export Cited page paper help term workv (Dec. 1986), 7–8; Aileen O'Toole, The pace setters (1987); Sunday Tribune24 July 1988; 26 Studies houses case, 21 June 1992; 14 Nov. 1993; 26 Mar. 1995; 7 Jan., 25 Aug. 1996; 11 May 1997; Flight International3 Sept. 1988; 22 Nov. 1989; Wall Street Journal1 May 1989; 10 May 1993; 15 Aug. 1996; Institutional InvestorNov. 1989; Phoenix15 Dec. 1989; 21 Feb., 1, 29 May 1992; 29 Jan., 12 Mar. 1993; 21 June 1996; 6 June 1997; 13 Aug. 1999; Annual report of the comptroller and auditor general and appropriation accounts (1992), help dimensional analysis homework Economist25 Apr. 1992; Sunday Business Post26 Apr., 21 June, 6 Sept. 1992; 26 Sept. 1993; 7 Oct. 2007; Management TodayJune 1992; EuromoneyJuly 1992; Times8 Dec. 1992; Observer27 Nov. 1994; 21 Apr. 1996; Edward Cahill, Corporate financial crisis in Ireland (1997); MagillNov. 2000; Ivor Kenny, Leaders: conversations with Irish chief executives (2001); For homework dyslexic students help G. Weldon, Pioneers in flight: Aer Lingus and the story of aviation in Ireland (2003); Airfinance Journal1 Feb. 2004; Siobhán Creaton, Ryanair: the full story of the controversial low-cost airline (2004); Alan Ruddock, Michael O'Leary: a life in full flight (2008 ed.); Liam Collins, The dark side of celebrity (2009); Christopher Brown, Crash landing: an inside account of the fall of GPA (2009); Sean Barrett, Deregulation and the airline business in Europe (2009 ed.); Siobhán Creaton, A mobile fortune: the life and times of Denis O'Brien (2010); Richard Alduous, Tony Ryan: Ireland's aviator (2013); Case study event Irwin, Jack & Jill: The story of Jonathan Irwin (2014), 108–13. A photos homework entry, added to the DIB online, Service essay swansea writing 2016. Image courtesy of Wikicommons, under a CC BY-SA 3.0 license.