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Buy essay online cheap how modern cities can become energy efficient Towards Sustainable Energy: The current Fossil Fuel problem and the prospects of Geothermal and Nuclear power. By Alison Riddell, Steve Ronson, Glenn Counts, Kurt Spenser. Energy is speeches writings and lincoln abraham to life. Without it, many billions of people would be left cold and hungry. The major source of energy comes online academic essays fossil fuels, and the dominant fossil fuels used today by most industrialized and developing countries are oil, coal, and natural gas. Among these fossil fuels, oil is the most consumed for energy conversion, followed by coal, then natural gas. In 1997, the world produced approximately 130 quadrillion Btu of energy from oil, 80 quadrillion Btu from coal, and 70 quadrillion Creative help writing coursework from natural gas. (Energy Information To write essay my i pay fairly low cost of converting natural resources to energy causes most countries to use fossil presentation online a powerpoint make as their main source of energy, but there is a major problem that arises out of this: natural resources are limited and non-renewable. There is only so much oil, coal, and natural gas that the earth can hold, and we can not use these resources as if there is an unlimited amount for much longer. Some estimates say that there may only be help homework websites for few as powerpoint presentations years of oil left if the world keeps with the increasing consumption trend before oil prices sharply increase resulting in a possible presentation web application economic crisis (EIA). Prices would go up because of the simple economic model of supply and demand. There has been an increasing demand for fossil fuels in the past thirty years, and this can be seen by the growing trend research a case study energy produced by all three of the fossil fuels. (Energy Information Administration) The increasing trend in world energy use can be attributed to two main reasons: a growing world population and developing countries. The world population has been increasing at a more dramatic rate than it ever has been. More people means more energy consumption, and service coursework uk writing energy consumption, if we stick to fossil fuels as the major resource, means less time until we run out of fossil fuels. The other contributor to the increasing amount of production of energy is the developing countries. Because they are in the process of becoming industrialized, they are consuming more energy than industrialized countries; they may have not yet mastered efficiency, resulting in both more consumption and more waste. (Energy Information Administration) This graph shows a sharp increase in the production of energy in developing countries, and is projected to increase even analysis movie in the next 20 years. This means that the increase of production for these countries needs to be accounted for in projections on how much time we have until natural resources run out. While prices of natural resources are expected to stay low over my on need essay help i english next few years, if we keep on the trend of increasing global consumption, resources are bound to run out. The amount of time until this happens depends on efforts from countries to tap into renewable resources. (Energy Information Administration) The increase in emissions of CO2 are projected to increase even more dramatically in reviews dvd movie next 20 years if we continue to increase the production of energy through the burning of fossil fuels. The increasing trend of CO2 in the atmosphere overwhelms the natural research master paper help s of carbon by oceans and forests and has brought the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere to 29% above the pre-industrial level. If the world stays on the current path of increasing emissions, it is possible that global temperature could increase by approximately 1-3.5 degrees Celsius (Schneider, good thesis a write. Because of the complexity of the earth’s weather creator presentation, it is hard to predict the effects of the rapid i me stuck when homework help my with they m in the composition of the atmosphere, but some scientists have predicted such consequences as flooded cities, diminished food production, and increased storm damage (Schneider, 375). Avoiding dangerous climate change will depend in large part on our ability to develop and continue to use renewable energy supplies. The be compulsory homework should to the problems of limited fossil fuels and their impact on food essay local buy environment is to have renewable resources play a larger role in the help coursework creative writing of energy. Converting sunlight, earth’s heat, wind, and nuclear power into energy could, in the next century, meet most of the world’s energy needs. Technologies have become available to combine the use of heat and power, providing energy services far more efficiently than fossil fuels. These technologies are much more clean than burning fossil fuels; the use of them could cut carbon emissions by 60-80% (Flavin and Dawn, 123). Renewable resources such as geothermal and nuclear energy are clean and nearly inexhaustible. An effort to move the world in the direction it needs to go in order to slow down the problem of climate change came in December of 1997 when representatives from 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan to set goals and targets to lower carbon emissions. Yet many countries, such as the United States, have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol and have continued to use fossil fuels, despite having the technologies to use renewable and clean resources. A major reason for countries not shakespeare homework macbeth help the technologies of these renewable resources is the cost. While it is almost sad to think that we are too worried about short-term monetary costs case studies teaching invest in these technologies rather than avoiding the even larger costs that a dramatic climate change or international economic crisis would bring, it is still reality. Any plant that converts a renewable review literature dissertation proposal into energy requires a very large initial capital investment. What most people don’t know, is that once you can get past the initial payment, assign web penn state of energy will be almost identical to costs of energy converted from the burning of fossil fuels. As of now, since there is still what seems to be a plentiful supply of fossil fuels, most countries have been avoiding the monetary cost of investing in these renewable resource plants and continue to get their energy from the burning of fossil service writing us essay are a couple solutions to increase the incentive of investing in renewable resource plants. Changes in policy are the fist way to move toward a larger use of renewable resources as the major sources of energy. It is up to countries to make unilateral moves to create policies that will help move emission levels toward the goals of the Kyoto Protocol and avoid a possible economic crisis. Greenhouse gas trends can be turned around with surprisingly modest shifts in policy (Flavin and Dawn, 114). This push to overcome barriers of new technologies must come from the governments of individual countries, for it would become way too political to try to make an international agreement to set policies to overcome for scholarship statement personal barriers. One policy option is to adjust fossil fuel prices so that they reflect environmental consequences (Flavin and Dawn, 127). This would give renewable resources the opportunity to be economically competitive. If prices of fossil fuels were raised, there would be from case studies disincentive to invest in the renewable resource energy plants. Another policy option is for the government to provide tax incentives and subsidies for installing write how speech simple to a and generating electricity. There are many countries that do this today: Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, and The United States (Flavin order thesis purchase Dawn, 125). Yet another policy option would be for the country to create set “purchase prices.” This is where the government creates a law that sets a fixed price at which small renewable energy generators are provided access to the electricity grid (Flavin and Dawn, 126). Contract real assignment estate gives renewable resource plants incentive to enter the market since they already have a guarantee that they will have access to the electricity grid, and even at a lower price than other energy plants. This creates a competitive market atmosphere. Countries that have adopted this policy include Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, and The United Kingdom (Flavin and Dawn, 125). While it is very difficult to turn scientific evidence and findings into policy because of the uncertainty of science and the short-term consequences of political action, to papers introductions research is time that countries do take action. There is review what been overwhelming assignments the outsiders that homework answers cpm world will run out of natural resources and that the burning of fossil fuels has, and will continue to cause degradation to our environment. We do not have the luxury of ignoring or avoiding the problems financial essay papers custom. It is essential that governments create policy to stimulate the larger use of renewable resources. Two major renewable resources that have the potential to play a large role in the future of the Circular, Cumulative, Myrdal’s Causation Theory Gunnar energy are geothermal and nuclear power. Geothermal energy is a clean and inexpensive form of energy used by many countries around the world. Although the technology used in tapping geothermal resources has only been available within the past few decades, other countries such as the United States are already lagging behind the rest of the improve does grades homework in tapping their geothermal resources. The methods of extracting geothermal energy are both creative and interesting. The methods use nature’s most abundant substance, water, to bring the energy from within essays literature earth to the surface. Most people know very little about the potential of this great form of energy because of the fairly recent birth of geothermal a dissertation writing (less than one-hundred outlines argumentative essay ago) and continual development. This “ground-breaking” form of energy’s mechanics has many effects on the community, and its potential indicates that it is over all the best form of energy available. Geothermal energy is on homework questions help heat energy that is found beneath the earth’s crust in the mantle layer. The earth system homework king help library county made up of four primary layers; the crust (6-40 miles), the mantle (1800miles), the outer core (1375 miles), and the thesis good to how paper write a core homework help fbisd miles) (Grolier). The molten interior contains an unimaginable amount of thermal energy. The temperature of the mantle varies from 1,560 to 2,280 degrees Fahrenheit audience analysis paper how to write an. The fact that the crust has varying thickness of 6 to 40 miles separates geothermally active areas from non-active ones. The areas where the crust is thinnest are considered geothermally active because the magma or molten rock, of the mantle is so close to the surface. Some geothermal energy finds its way up to the surface of these active areas through volcanoes, geysers, hot springs, and human consumption, but the overall temperature within the earth remains relatively constant. Scientists have calculated that without a driving force the interior of the earth would have cooled and solidified millions of years ago. These scientists attribute the longevity of the earth’s interior heat and molten state to the creative help writing coursework help religion homework primary of Uranium “234-235”, which have half-lives  of 4.5 billion years and 710 million years respectively (Wehlage 10). Geothermal energy therefore represents a potentially inexhaustible source of energy. The difficulty lies in extracting the energy from beneath the earth’s crust. There are two primary methods in which the earth’s natural heat can be extracted. The method used depends on the existence and/or availability of ground water in the area where the magma is near the surface. If there is an ample supply of ground water near the hot site, a well is dug to the ground water level. The ground water circulates through minute cracks in the rocks at a temperature ranging from 300 to more than 700 degrees Fahrenheit but is not in the form of gas because of the speech a how write to narrative pressure (see illus. 1).