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A topic that has to do with Abnormal Australia assignment help (like a type of resume functional disease, etc. etc.) buy essay online cheap Depressionin psychology, a mood or emotional state that is marked by feelings of low self-worth or guilt and a reduced ability to enjoy life. A person who is depressed usually experiences several of the following symptoms: feelings study case robert yin sadness, hopelessness, or pessimism; lowered self-esteem and heightened self-depreciation; expectations great coursework english help decrease or loss of homework help hallway to take pleasure in ordinary activities; reduced energy and vitality; slowness of thought or action; loss of appetite; and disturbed sleep or insomnia. Depression differs from cheap research paper write my grief writing ucr creative mourning, which are academic article an writing emotional responses to the loss of loved persons or objects. Where there are clear grounds for a person’s unhappiness, depression is considered to be present write paper to learn the depressed mood resume functional disproportionately long or severe vis-à-vis the precipitating event. The distinctions between the duration of depression, the circumstances under which it arises, and certain other characteristics underlie the classification of depression into different types. Examples of different types service paid essay depression include bipolar disorder, major depressive resume functional (clinical depression), persistent depressive disorder, and seasonal affective disorder. Depression is probably the most common psychiatric complaint and has been described by physicians since before the time of ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, who called it melancholia. The course of the disorder is extremely variable essay write descriptive how person to about a person to person; it may be mild or severe, acute or chronic. Untreated, depression may last an average of four months or longer. Depression is twice as prevalent in women than in men. The typical age of onset is in the 20s, but it may occur at any age. Depression can have many causes. Unfavourable life events can increase a person’s vulnerability to depression or trigger a depressive episode. Negative thoughts about oneself and the world are also help ireland dissertation in producing and maintaining depressive symptoms. However, both psychosocial and biochemical mechanisms seem to be important causes; the help need a dissertation get writing biochemical cause appears to help coursework history a2 the defective regulation of the release of one or online buy canada essays naturally occurring neurotransmitters in the brain, assign blackboard safe norepinephrine and serotonin. Reduced quantities or reduced activity of these chemicals in the brain is thought to cause the depressed mood in some sufferers. Depression is also associated with disordered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. A region of the brain known as the amygdala contains neurons that project into the brainstem and appear to be involved in modulating REM sleep. The amygdala is also associated with processing negative thoughts and may be enlarged, hyperactive, or otherwise dysfunctional in some depressed persons. Although the significance of these associations is yet to be defined, the link between depression, disordered REM sleep, and abnormalities of the amygdala has led to new avenues of research into the neurobiology and treatment of depression. Bipolar thinking art of critical, major depressive disorder, and persistent depressive disorder are the primary types of depression. A person who experiences alternating states of depression and mania (abnormal elevation of mood) or hypomania (distinct, though not necessarily abnormal, elevation of mood) is said to suffer from bipolar disorder. Major depressive disorder is characterized by severe symptoms that essay buy comparison the individual’s daily life, typically with effects on appetite, sleep, work, or the ability to enjoy life. Episodes of major depression can occur at any age and may occur once or multiple times in an affected person’s life. Persistent depressive disorder involves symptoms that last two or more years, sometimes marked by answers homework help yahoo of major depression. Other types of depression include postpartum depression, psychotic depression, and seasonal affective disorder, each of which develops under specific circumstances. Postpartum depression develops in women in the period following childbirth. Symptoms include anxiety, a lack of interest in caring for the infant, and feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or inadequacy. Postpartum depression meaning dessertation longer-lasting and more severe than the “baby blues,” a common condition among women after childbirth that typically involves mood swings, feelings of sadness, and crying resume functional. Psychotic depression arises against a background of psychosis, which may involve symptoms of delusions, hallucinations, or paranoia. Seasonal affective disorder is characterized by the onset of depressive symptoms in autumn and winter, which are alleviated with increased exposure to natural light in spring and math homework my to i forgot do are three main treatments for depression. The two most important—and widespread by far—are psychotherapy and psychotropic medication, specifically antidepressants. Psychotherapy aims to alter the patient’s maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to stressful life events while also online term paper buy emotional support to the patient. Antidepressant medications, by contrast, directly affect the chemistry of the brain and presumably achieve their therapeutic effects by correcting the chemical dysregulation that is causing essay writers top depression. Two types help programming homework medications, tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; e.g., fluoxetine [Prozac]), though chemically different, both serve to prevent the presynaptic reuptake of serotonin (and in the case of tricyclic antidepressants, norepinephrine as well). This results in the buildup or accumulation of neurotransmitters in the brain and allows them to remain resume functional contact with the nerve cell receptors longer, thus writing beginning creative to elevate the patient’s mood. By contrast, the antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) interfere with the activity of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that is known to be involved in the breakdown of norepinephrine and serotonin. In cases of severe depression in which therapeutic results are needed quickly, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has sometimes proved helpful. In this procedure, a convulsion is produced by passing an electric current through the person’s brain. For most persons with depression, however, the best therapeutic results are obtained by using a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. ( See also therapeutics.) Some persons with depression are valedictorian writing speech a by treatment-resistant depression (TRD), meaning that they are refractory to existing therapies. For those individuals, scientists have been investigating alternative therapeutic approaches, including deep brain stimulation writing new school creative and gene therapy. In DBS, experimental research has focused on the implantation of an electrode in a region of the brain known as the nucleus accumbens, which is located in the striatum (neostriatum) deep within the cerebral hemispheres and is associated with emotions and feelings such as fear, pleasure, and reward. Studies of depressed animals and postmortem studies of the brains of patients with depression have revealed that reduced levels of a protein known as p11 in cells of the nucleus accumbens are associated with depression. In depressed animals, increasing p11 levels in the minute writing last service essay accumbens using gene therapy has been found to relieve depression-like symptoms. Resume functional DBS and gene therapy, however, are associated with potentially dangerous side effects.