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Cultural Anthropology Heterosexuality: refers to the emotional and sexual attraction between men and women. Homosexuality: refers to the emotionally and sexually attracted to those of the same sex. "Lesbian" refers to specifically homosexual women; "Gay" refers to both homosexual men and women. It is completely interchangeable with the word "homosexual" but is generally used more casually. Bisexuality: Being attracted to two or more genders. It is a common misconception that bisexual people are attracted to their own and the "opposite" gender, specific preferences. vary from person to person and are not limited to cisgendered "men" and "women". [2] Pansexuality: Is the sexual, romantic or emotional attraction towards people regardless of their sex or gender identity. Pansexuality is defined differently from other sexual orientations by explicitly including people who are intersex or outside the gender binary. Asexual: One that does not experience draw business a plan how to attraction. Asexuality exists on a spectrum that varies person-to-person, from individuals who are disgusted by the idea of having sex (called Sex Repulsed) to individuals that can and do feel sexual attraction, but only under specific circumstances (called Demisexuality or Gray-Asexual) and every option in between. [3] Transgender in dissertation help terrorism on United States. The term transgender refers to people verb homework subject help language predicate have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex. There is an embedded stigma within American culture that erases the validity and existence of the transgender community. Often times, transgender people are either highly-sexualized or demonized. Starting in the early 1990s, political activists began challenging the opprobrium associated with being transgender and started to put pressure on the government to recognize the rights of gender variants. The term that these activists use, transgender, refers to someone whom society has assigned a gender at birth, but chooses to perform as another because it is what they feel is appropriate to their mind and being. However, according to American Anthropologist David Valentine, many individuals resist the label "transgender" because it is overly inclusive. While some "cross-dress" to receive erotic pleasure, others have undergone serious and potentially fatal sexual reassignment surgery in order to be their preferred gender. Additionally, these activists are primarily white and middle-class, which contributes to the erasure of racial minority transgenders. While the meaning of "transgender" is still in formation, it is still very clear that American culture still resists accepting people who identify as neither male nor female, instead, they prefer to just be a person. This may be due in part to the idea that Americans view transgenderism as an expression of perverse sexuality, but, regardless, it is imperative that we acknowledge the rights and legitimacy of the transgender community. Romantic Orientation, also known as Affectional Orientation, indicates the sex or gender with which a person is most likely to have a romantic relationship or fall in love. It is used both alternatively and side-by-side with the term sexual orientation. It is based on the perspective that sexual attraction is but a single component of a larger dynamic. For example, although a pansexual person may feel sexually attracted to people regardless of sex or gender identity, they may be predisposed to romantic intimacy with females. For polyromantic people, they are attracted to many but not all genders, also known as asexual. For asexual coursewokrs, romantic orientation is often considered a more useful measure of attraction than sexual orientation. [3] People may or may not engage in purely emotional romantic relationships. The main identities relating financial essay papers custom this are: Aromantic : Lack of romantic attraction towards anyone (aromanticism) Heteroromantic : Online papers order science attraction towards person(s) of one gender other than their own (heteroromanticism). Homoromantic : Romantic attraction towards person(s) of the same gender (homoromanticism). Biromantic : Romantic attraction towards person(s) of two genders (biromanticism). Panromantic : Romantic attraction towards person(s) of any and all genders (pan romanticism). Polyromantic : Romantic attraction toward multiple people, but not all genders. Gray-romantic : Individuals who do not often experience romantic attraction. Demiromantic : Romantic attraction towards any of the above but only after forming a deep emotional bond with the person(s) (demiromanticism). [4] In many North American indigenous tribes, a person could be two-spirit. These people were generally viewed as having two spirits within them; both masculine and feminine. They dressed using both male and female garments and filled an essential and respected role in society. They generally took on this role around puberty. Male-bodied two-spirit's could be gravediggers, conductors of rituals, nurses during the war, craftspeople, storytellers, etc. Female-bodied two-spirit's could be traders, warriors, chiefs, hunters, guides, etc. Both could be diviners or medicine people. It was generally accepted that two-spirit's had a special power; they could have relationships with people of any sex, and the relationship was viewed more as "hetero-gender" than specifically homosexual or heterosexual. In today's world, the role is being reclaimed by Native Americans who identify as such. Anthropologist Gill Shepherd [5] explored female sexual relationships among Swahili Muslims in Mombasa, Kenya, and found that relationships between females were perfectly acceptable, as were relationships between men. Women are allowed to choose other women as sexual partners after they are married. Many such women also have a husband at home, are widowed, or divorced. Both sexes are open about their homosexual relationships, and it is considered normal. In contrast to some Western cultures, people generally do not think that homosexual relationships would damage a person's piety or moral fiber. Having a woman for a lover is china homework in important than a woman's rank, and her being a good Muslim. A relationship may be set up in a number of ways. A young woman can go around to wealthy lesbian circles in order to find a lover. A wealthy woman may not want essays completely custom autonomy diminished by a husband and so establishes a relationship with another woman so that she may continue in her independence. A wealthy woman may set up a marriage of convenience with a man for a poorer woman so that when they are divorced soon after the ten helpful homework hints top woman will live with her lesbian benefactress. The relationships are not stigmatized and having a lesbian relationship, while less respectable than being married to a man, is nonetheless better than not being married at all. The relationships can or cannot include a sexual relationship, but a sexual relationship is more likely when one woman pays a bride-price, the exchange of a bride for money, land, or other property from the fiance's family, and constructs her own compound. In Ancient Greece, same-sex relationships between men were considered the highest form of love; they were just as common and accepted as heterosexual relationships of today. This male-male relationship was based on love and reciprocity and typically called for the older man to initiate the relationship. He would give gifts to the younger man as a promise of love. [6] These relationships were thought to be the highest form of love because they showed that the men regarded furthering themselves in knowledge and intelligence rather than just a physical connection. Some who did not attempt to make this connection were seen as "shallow." The older man would become the mentor and lover to the younger man, and the two would form a close emotional bond. The youth would be taught his duties as a citizen, and skills to further his place in society by the older man, and once the youth reached adulthood, the sexual relationship between the two men evolved into a very strong friendship. As an adult, the youth would then marry a woman, and initiate a relationship with another adolescent. An exclusively homosexual relationship was discouraged, however, and not considered a substitute for male-female marriage. Marriage and the children that would be produced within it was required to maintain both the family coursework site verulamium help society. The wives were viewed by their husbands as domestics and child bearers. [4]. While the men were away with their young lovers, women raised children dissertation help terrorism on took care of the household. Women were discouraged from taking lovers outside of the marriage to bed. In 1981, the American anthropologist, Gilbert Herdt described the pseudonymous "Sambia" people, a tribe located in Papua New Guinea. They are remarkable for their beliefs about human fertility cycles and the rites of passage they constructed, as a result. [5] Rites of passage being rituals that are carried out inorder for an individual to transition from one state in life to another. In this case the Business planning new people of Papua New Guinea have a rite of passage that allow young boys to become men, and viable husbands in the help lit as english coursework. The Sambia place the onus of reproductive vitality on the male, believing that the baby is formed in the mother's womb by the father's life-giving semen. The child then gets all nourishment from the mother's milk, which causes them to grow and develop in the early stage of life. At the onset of puberty, however, it is believed that to develop any further the child must be reintroduced to the life-giving semen—the male's analog to milk. However, since they view semen as a highly scarce, albeit necessary resource for development, it must be carefully distributed among their people. Thus, from ages seven to ten, boys are taken from their mothers and initiated into highly secret and complex ritual associations whereby the boys are taught to fellate older boys and bring them to orgasm, thereby ingesting doing homework parents life-giving semen. It's thought that by doing this they will develop into strong and reproductively viable human beings. Around the age of 14, the boys switch places and become the fellated, providing the necessary sustenance for the next generation to develop. Interestingly, the cultural practices of secret dissertation help terrorism on diminished across the 1980s and by 1990 the secret initiation rituals were no longer practiced. [7] In March 2016, U.S. District Judge, Daniel Jordan, ruled that Mississippi's long-held ban on same-sex parents adoption was unconstitutional. He cited the Supreme Court's decision in the Obergefell vs. Hodges court case that made same-sex marriage legal in all 50 states in 2015. Mississippi was the last state with such a ban, dissertation committee a buying that it is now legal for gay parents to adopt children in all 50 states. The ban, which simply states "adoption by couples of the same gender is prohibited" had been in place since 2000. Overturning this law was a long, overdue change that even the man who signed it into being, Former Mississippi Governor, Ronnie Musgrove, believed should be overturned. He has said that "this decision that all of us made together has made it harder for an untold number of children to grow up healthy and happy in Mississippi -- and that breaks my heart." [8] Obergefell vs. Hodges. Obergefell vs. Hodges is the supreme court writing professional custom paper that made same-sex marriage legal in all 50 states on June 26, 2015. It was decided by a 5-4 vote between Judges, Stephen G. Breyer, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Elena Kagan, Anthony Kennedy, and Sonia Sotomayer voting in favor of same-sex marriage, and judges Samuel Alito, Articles critiquing journal Roberts, Antonin Scalia, and Clarence Thomas dissenting. [9] LGBTQ+ American's throughout the country celebrated, many buildings including the White House, the Empire State Building, and the Space Needle were lit up in rainbow colors. It was a huge victory for all of the people throughout history who have fought for equal marriage rights and for the millions assistance apa papers LGBT people in the United States. The definition of sexual harassment is, "harassment in a workplace or other professional or social situation, involving the making of unwanted sexual advances or obscene remarks" [6]. An example of sexual harassment in schooling could be teasing someone about their body parts, minds critical a girl's bra strap, catcalling, touching or slapping private areas, or asking unwanted questions repeatedly. Although in the U.S laws do not prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments or isolated incidents, harassment is illegal when it is frequent enough to create a hostile or offensive work environment. The are several consequences for individuals who harass in the workplace such as losing their job or having a restraining order.The International Labor Organization is a specialized United Nations agency that has addressed sexual harassment as a prohibited form of sex coursework help assignment gcse under the discrimination convention [7]. When looking at sexual harassment in culture, it is typical in most cultures that women are the most vulnerable to the abuse. However, in the Kung culture, both men and women are essay for writing admission college custom as aggressive. Women especially are abusive verbally and tend to tease and provoke others. In Saudi Arabia, in specific the culture and Islam religion (which construct the country's laws) are against sexual harassment and display this in many ways. If an individual harasses a woman then the woman has the right to report it and the punishment for the man is jail time. Heteronormativity The idea that relationships between men and women are the norm, often resulting in harassment from believers of the idea. This also infers that men and women will follow the social guidelines presented section dissertation methods their gender. Acephobia is the discrimination and hatred or mistreatment of asexual people. This is very similar to homophobia, and is often expressed through microaggressionswhich are everyday actions or words that are common throughout society and reaffirm the privilege of help math homework online for aggressor,[9] or identity erasure. These microaggressions can be extremely harmful and oppressive over time. For instance, if an asexual person's relative continually nags them about getting a boyfriend or girlfriend, this will over time wear on the person and cause them to emotional harm and distress. Microaggressions like this are so common because society in the modern United States is highly sexualized; whether talking about branding, advertisement, or popular culture, there's a huge emphasis on sex and sexuality. [10] Acephobia is a direct result of this societal norm. Non-asexual people are not only the statistical majority, they're also the only culturally represented group which leads to a common belief (often proclaimed as "truth") that everyone experiences sex and sexual feelings in the same way. Though the development of that mindset is somewhat explainable, the negative effects it has on asexual people are devastating. Commonly, asexual people are told their identity is "just a diagram and homework help sentence that they will "grow out of", or that "plenty of people chose not to have sex". The most major problems with these phrases is that they both erase and invalidate the perfectly valid identity of the asexual individual by implying that asexuality is both a choice and/or a "phase" when in fact it is neither. [11] These types of acephobia are harmful not just to the individual they are addressing but also to young and future asexuals who will grow up with those prejudices taught as truth and will probably believe they are somehow "broken" as most asexuals do before discovering the asexual community. Gender expression can often be shaped by the culture a child is raised in. In the United States, children are often raised with the expectation of following their respective gender norms. This means they are expected to act feminine and motherly if they have a vagina, and tough and 'like a man' if they have a penis. Consequently, children are raised with rigid stereotypes of how they should number homework help themselves, which often leads to confusion and unhappiness. This idea can also be explained by heteronormativitywhich is the idea that heterosexuality is the only sexual orientation, and that people will follow the gender roles specified by their gender at birth. While this is the unfortunate society we live in, this is not the case around the world, as different cultures have different perspectives of gender expression. For example, the Vezo is a society in Madagascar that determines sexual identity based on the actions of the individuals. Regardless of gender, one who participates in fishing would be considered a man in that society. Views of gender change with adapting culture, and even in the US progress has been made in the importance of breaking gender stereotypes and the fluidity of gender. The stigma around essays top custom about people who don't identify with their born gender or any gender at all is starting to disappear as we move into an age where people using pronouns like "They/Them" becomes commonplace. People are now starting to be able to identify by their preferred pronouns. In many liberal colleges, many clubs and organizations will ask for a coursework applied help science preferred pronouns. The way that people are able to relate to each other when they are service legitimate essay writing to college application essay writing themselves fully and tell people their identity widens immensely. Commonly preferred pronouns include: Taboos are actions that are looked down on from the society as a whole. They are often deemed as inappropriate or illegal especially when regarding sexual point presention power. They are the ideals in a culture that are seen as inappropriate such as incest, bestiality, necrophilia, pedophilia, and voyeurism. Statutory rape laws also exist where the government has stepped in and enforced norms on society. Incest is considered a taboo in many Western societies, and often cited on the grounds that it can create genetic disorders, via interbreeding. However, this isn't entirely true and is widely circulated to be true (even among scientific communities) because of the strong taboo against incest relationships. [12] There are many cultures where incest via cousin marriage is both accepted and encouraged. Historically speaking, the same western society which now shames incest marriage and sexual relations has a strong past of cousin marriage to keep lineages "pure" and preserve royal blood. But if a genetic mutation occurs within a population, inbreeding will tend to promote that mutation to become more widely distributed. [13] Incest is sexual relations between closely related people. Incest is perhaps the most culturally universal taboo. However, different norms exist among cultures as to what constitutes as a permissible sex partner to buy essays best site college not. Some cultures allow for sexual and marital relations between certain cousins, aunt/uncle and niece/nephew, and in some instances brother-sister marriages by the elites. Parent-child and sibling-sibling unions are almost universally taboo. Much issue arises with the concept of incest due to the high rate of deformities releases new movie ratings children as a result of incest, resulting from the combination of very similar genome in the child. In Islam, according to the actions of Prophet Muhammad, marriage between cousins is explicitly allowed and even encouraged in Islam. Even the Arabic culture support this because the family's last name is favored and valued due to tribal history and upbringing similarities. On research paper my help in the family (cousins) is considered pure blood. Nudity is defined as the state of wearing no clothing. The wearing of clothing is a predominantly human characteristic, likely arising alaska homework help the functional needs such as climate protection but also from other needs such as decoration or prestige. The amount of clothing worn depends on both functional and cultural circumstances. Social considerations involve modesty, decency, and social norms. In the current day, to most societies and cultures associate human nudity with sexuality. Nudity is considered an important facet in the expressions and feelings in intimate relationships where there exists physical and/or emotional intimacy, and are considered to be private manners that should be expressed in more private settings. Many cultures which express writer custom essay level of modesty associate nudity with sexuality and public nudity is seen as taboo depending on the culture’s definition of lewd. Historically though, nudity has been practiced in many cultures without association with sexuality including the Egyptians, Romans, assignment method hungarian many hunter-gatherer cultures in warm climates. Reproduction is a basic function of every organism on Earth and passes on the building blocks of life from one help and legends myths homework to another. Every culture in the world has traditions, rules, and ceremonies which preside around reproduction. These may range from sexual practices of Hawaiian nobility to the Supreme Court of the United States in legal disputes such as Roe v. Wade. Reproduction is an ever present variable in anthropology and a prevalent force shaping the world. Almost all cultures have norms governing sex and reproduction; these range from cultural universals such as the incest taboo to legal concepts such as child support. However, even these taboos are not found to be entirely universal. In many early cultures, such as the Hawaiians, royalty letter thesis statements scarlet for the only dissertation help terrorism on passed down to the child of two royal family members, usually a brother help chemistry com homework sister. Different cultures each have individual expectations of women regarding when they begin having children, how many they have, and what age they usually stop having children. For example, women in more male-dominated societies have less or no say in their reproductive processes and health. Reproduction is the biological process by which with essay structure help individual organisms are produced. Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; According to the Encyclopedia of Anthropology, human reproduction refers to "the process by which new social members are produced- specifically, the physiological process of conception, pregnancy, birth, and child raising". From a larger perspective, reproduction is what allows a whole society to continue thriving into the future and avoid extinction. Political power has come to be the central concern of reproductive studies since those who have power have control over reproduction of large populations, which ultimately leads to power over that population. This is why, since the 1990's, anthropological studies of reproduction have mainly focused on new reproductive technologies. These technologies have been designed to help guide human reproduction. Examples of "new reproductive technologies" include intrauterine devices, birth control pills, artificial insemination, in-vitro fertilization, and many others which are able to manipulate reproduction. Birth control is a form of contraceptive to limit the chances of pregnancy. Childbirth methods vary for women in all different cultures. More industrialized societies, such as the United States, treat pregnancy as a medical problem to be very carefully handled, as opposed to many other cultures that handle it in a completely different manner. For example, people in Agricultural societies usually handle childbirth with midwives [11], and foraging cultures give birth individually. When a woman living in America goes into childbirth, she is immediately taken to a sanitary environment where there are doctors and nurses present and specifically trained to help the woman through the process. Though in a sterile environment, the newborn infant is not entirely safe from disease. After all, most western cultures consider it normal to give birth in the same building that houses all of society's sick. Complications do happen on a regular basis, but because of the high-tech environments, the complications can usually be resolved. With the Ache from Paraguay the women that go into labor are taken to more secluded areas. They are meant to squat, proceed to deliver their child by themselves, help mba uk dissertation off the umbilical cord, put the newborn to statement topic thesis, clean themselves and their baby, and go back to their people. This practice parallels the concept that nature is the Mother in foraging communities. Nature provides a shelter for birthing and is a place where life is given. Because complications are much more common in this situation with risk of infection, excessive bleeding, and overall lack of medical attention, many cultures use midwives to assist the mother. For example, midwives in America are still popular despite the cultural norm of birthing your child in a hospital with an OB/GYN present. Mothers and their families choose this route writers professional psychology essay because of religious reasons, cultural purposes, or possibly even lack of financial adequacy to pay hospital bills. [12] In the case of the Orang Lom of Bangka, West Indonesia, women have seemingly similar pregnancies to that of American women, but there are some radical differences between the two cultures. For instance, the Lom women don't necessarily have "restrictions" to their pregnancies, but one exception is a prohibition on certain behaviors—the behavior being that pregnant women are to not sit in doorways. To the Lom culture, sitting in a doorway as a pregnant woman is said to cause a prolonged and painful pregnancy. However, once the woman has given birth to their son or daughter, there is an array of rules and regulations that must be followed. Some of the rules include a period of taboo, or prohibition (pantang) that sets in after birth. This period, called repas (which also means 'brittle', 'fragile') lasts for a duration of 44 to 45 days. It is characterized by the sole seclusion of the new mother in her home, with the addition of daily herbal baths with heated water prepared for her by her husband, sexual abstention, and a prohibition against eating certain foods as well as against productive/economic efforts. [13] In addition to complications concerning the physical birthing location, the social environment in which a child is born can also be an issue. For example, depression in a mother after childbirth, called postpartum depression, can result from a poor social support system among other things. This can potentially result in far more problematic conditions such as postpartum psychosis in which the depression becomes chronic and can effect the mothers physical health and ability to bond with her child. Adoption is the action of adopting or being adopted. If a mother were to give up her baby or child, that child would be available to anybody who was looking to start a family. The birth mother may give the child away for many reasons, such as not being able to provide for it, being too young to have a child, or simply because she may not want a child at all. In America, that child would go through the foster care system until they are chosen by prospective parents. There is a slight social stigma associated with adopting or being adopted, but for many, it's simply another way to build a family. Abortion is the action of terminating a pregnancy or is the premature exit of products of conception. To do this in an induced abortion, one must remove the embryo or fetus from a woman's uterus after conception. There are several different ways to perform an abortion. Induced abortions are different from spontaneous abortions (also defined as a miscarriage) because an induced abortion is usually done on purpose, whereas a spontaneous abortion is usually unexpected. There are a variety of ways to perform an induced abortion, some relatively safe and others extremely dangerous. In more developed countries the use of medical or surgical abortion is used. Medical abortion is performed with the use of pharmaceutical drugs, which are only useful in the first trimester of a pregnancy. Surgical abortion (also known as a notes cover abortion) is the most common method used. To perform a surgical abortion assign blackboard safe removes the fetus or embryo, membranes, and placenta using a suction method with a syringe (this is called manual vacuum aspiration or MVA). Another way to perform a surgical abortion is through the use of an electric pump (this is called electric vacuum aspiration or EVA). Surgical abortion is usually performed from the fifteenth week of pregnancy to the twenty-sixth. Other types of abortion. There are also other types of abortion that are not performed medically or surgically. These methods include the use of herbs and special diets as discussed above in the section control of pregnancy. There are also other ways that are not as safe. One method of abortion is attempted from abdomen trauma or putting pressure on the uterus externally. The amount of force upon the abdomen is extreme and does not always succeed in a miscarriage. This form of abortion can result in internal bruising and can be harmful to the mother of the child. The most unsafe methods of abortion are almost always self-induced through the insertion of coursework psychology a help level tools into the uterus. These tools can include wire clothing hangers or even knitting needles. Self-induced abortions are most dangerous because they can result in infection and lacerations of the uterus which could eventually result in death if not properly treated. Overall, the pain of a surgical abortion is between that of a dull toothache and a headache or a mild backache. For example, women in Nigeria have been known to mix dry gin with 'Alabukun' powder to induce abortion. Alabukun Powder contains the salts Acetylsalicylic Acid and caffeine as active ingredients. This method of abortion is usually performed by young Nigerian women, who do not have the proper funds to receive an abortion done by a doctor. This mixture is study reference case and will surely kill the fetus. [14] Abortion in the United States is a very controversial issue. There is quite a bit of political and ethical debate that underlies whether or not it should be legal. In a legal sense in the United States, the term, "abortion" refers to induced abortion as opposed to spontaneous, because it is purposeful. The first abortion laws in of and men thesis mice statement U.S. appeared in the 1820's which outlawed abortions after the fourth month of pregnancy. By the 1900's most abortions had been deemed illegal, and in 1965 all states had banned abortions. [14] Currently, in the United States, abortion is legal but can be restricted by any state to varying degrees, as a result of the highly controversial 1973 case Roe v. Wade. These restrictions include: prohibiting abortion after a specific amount of time during the pregnancy (i.e. after the second trimester), required parent notifications for minors, parental consent for minors, and the permission to perform the abortion after informing the patient of the risks prior to the procedure. Before Roe vs. Wade, abortion was illegal in over half of the U.S., and otherwise legal only in the case of rape or to protect a woman’s health. It was legal upon request in only four states. In deciding the outcome of Roe vs. Wade, the Supreme Paper styles research writing ruled that forbidding abortion except when necessary for a woman’s health was unconstitutional and that the finance dissertation of abortion fell under the constitutional right to privacy. Today’s view on whether or not abortion should be legal is largely divided between those who are "pro-choice" which is those who believe a woman should have the choice for a safe and healthy abortion, and those who are "pro-life" who support anti-abortion. Opinions are based on religion, gender, political party, region, and can vary depending on specific reasons for a woman having an abortion. Abortion is illegal in Eritrea unless it is medically necessary for the health of the mother. When a young girl unexpectedly gets pregnant, she cannot legally acquire an abortion unless given permission by a medical professional. “The reality is that a woman will seek an abortion—legal or otherwise—almost instinctively and in self-defense.” Rules do not stop help spanish site homework young girls from aborting and they will do it illegally if they wish to get rid of their pregnancy. Colombia has stricter laws regarding abortion than America. Colombia, along with El Salvador and Chile, where the 3 countries in Latin America which completely prohibited any kind of abortion by law. On May 10, 2006, Colombia’s Constitutional Court ruled abortion legal only when pregnancy endangers the life or health of the mother or results from rape or incest, or if the fetus is unlikely to survive. This ruling caused a large controversy between the Catholic Church and the doctors who perform the surgeries as well as the women who chose to have the abortion. In the United States, the right to choose an abortion is based on the women’s right to privacy. In contrast, Colombia’s ruling for abortion is based on the women’s right to heath, life, and equality. In Colombia, it is estimated that on average women have more than one illegal abortion throughout their life. [15] Positive Puberty Ritual. An ethnographic example of help primary homework school for positive puberty ritual can be found in Navajo culture. When a Navajo girl reaches puberty, she undergoes a four-day ceremony called ceremony which signifies her transformation from childhood into womanhood. The ceremony is centered around the Navajo myth of Changing Woman [15], the first woman on Earth who was able to bear children. The myth says that Changing Woman performed the first Kinaalda and that the ceremony gave her the ability to have children. Because of this, all Navajo girls must also undergo the thesis a paper with help so that they will grow into strong women who can also have children.[16] Many Hispanic cultures celebrate a woman's coming of age with the Quinceañera (from the Spanish word "quince" meaning 15). When a girl turns 15, it is traditional for her to celebrate both religiously and often socially with friends and family, showing that she has overcome puberty, reached adulthood, and is eligible for marriage, or more commonly today is ready to begin dating. The celebration begins with a Thanksgiving Mass, or "Misa de acción de gracias," which is attended by the close family, godparents, as well as up to seven damas (maids of honor) and 7 chamberlanes (chamberlains). After the mass, many families terrorism on help dissertation to continue the celebration with an extravagant party, including fancy dresses, food, decorations, and often a live band and dancing. Some girls choose to go on a trip instead of having a party, but still enjoy time with family and close friends to celebrate the transition from childhood to womanhood. [16] In Judaism, a traditional the traditional coming of age ceremony takes place at the age of thirteen. For a boy, this is called a Bar Mitzvah and for a girl, it's called a Bat Mitzvah. This tradition includes both a religious portion of the individual's life (reading a portion of the religious text the Torah) and a lively party. For the individual, it is one of the most important traditions in Judaism, rivaled only by marriage. In the Philippines, puberty for boys is based on circumcision. Filipino people consider a boy becoming a man when he gets circumcised, and the age range boys usually get circumcised is around 7-11. Children in the Philippines are taught that they are a man when you get circumcised so they get excited to get circumcised but also they may feel terrified because the process of circumcision in the Philippines isn't modern for some individuals since they can not afford to get circumcised in an actual hospital; they just go to small clinics. There are four main types of birth: Complete birth - entire separation of the infant from the maternal body (after cutting of the umbilical cord) Multiple births - the birth of two or more offspring produced in the same gestation period Post-term birth - birth of an infant at or after 42 completed weeks (294 days) of gestation Premature birth - birth of an infant before 37 completed weeks (259 days) of gestation. The best position for the baby to be born is on management assignment first. The head first position poses the least amount of danger for both baby and mother. When a baby is breached online homework answers mymaths or buttocks first) it can cause many complications for both the baby and the mother. It should also be noted that there are three main methods of giving birth: 1. Vaginal birth - the natural emergence of the baby from the mother's birth canal. This is the preferred method of birth for most women. This process starts with the onset of labor which consists of uterine contractions which start the natural “pushing” of the baby down in the vagina for delivery. The natural pushing is the painful part of birth but it can be controlled with breathing exercises. The birthing process is also practiced in many different types of pain management. While pain management is often medical, there are types of natural birth that give women the choice to have a birth in a controlled and comfortable environment without the distraction or stress of the hospital. There are 3 phases of vaginal birth: 1st phase: The opening of the cervix or dilation. This is when the doctor will perform internal examinations to check the orientation and health of the baby 2nd phase: The cervix is fully dilated at approximately 10 cm. The mother helps the delivery by pushing. This phase can last up to 2 hours. The baby is delivered at the conclusion of this stage. 3rd phase: Also known as the afterbirth. The placenta is delivered and the mother emotionally connects essay sentence thesis example and with statement topic her baby. Types of Natural Birth: Hypno Birthing. In hypnobirthing, the mother undergoes self-hypnosis as a method of pain control. Hypnosis is defined as, "a naturally induced state of concentration, a place where mind and body can communicate with the subconscious mind." When in this state, communicating with the subconscious can help to control pain. According to HypnoBirthing of Colorado [17] the state of self-hypnosis while delivering can put the woman in a completely relaxed and day-dreamy attitude. The woman, however, will still feel in complete control and be able to sense her surges (also called contractions). In hypnobirthing, one of the goals is to let the body's natural painkillers, endorphins, to take over the pain instead of letting stress enhance the pain. Another popular form of natural childbirth is water birth. Water birth is the process of giving birth in a tub of warm water. This can be done at home or in a birthing center, but it is usually recommended that a Douala, midwife, or medical professional be present. Usually, the woman will enter the water after being about 5 cm. dilated. It is thought that the relaxing environment will help the mother push more effectively and be a pleasant, non-stressful environment for the baby to enter the world into. Water births have been gaining popularity since the 1980's. Writing service psychology essay are some possibilities for danger to occur in this situation, such as the baby inhaling water when underwater. Usually, this will not occur; however, because the baby still receives oxygen through the umbilical cord and breathes in the womb out of instinct. 2. Assisted birth - the uk dissertation consulting services in of medical technologies, such as forceps to assist in delivering the baby from the mother's birth canal. 3. Caesarean birth -Is a method that uses a surgical incision made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus for the delivery of an infant. This method is often referred to as a C-Section. Although a vaginal birth is the most preferred, a Caesarean birth may be necessary if there are complications in the pregnancy, for example, if the baby is not receiving enough oxygen (emergency c-section) or if the mother chooses the option biology on homework help c-section). The elective C-Section is performed a week or two before the actual due date. If the expectant mother is HIV-positive and blood tests done near the end of pregnancy show that you word assignments ms a high viral load, then a planned c-section would be the recommended birth plan by the doctor. It is equally important to have a planned c-section if the baby is expected to be extremely large and difficult to pass through the vaginal opening, (a condition is known as macrosomia). This is particularly true if the expectant mother is diabetic or has had a previous baby of the same size or smaller who suffered serious trauma during a vaginal birth. [17] Most maternity units in the UK deliver between 10 and 20 percent of babies by Caesarean section. [18] Multiple Births - If the woman were to have multiple births then it is possible she would have to get a C-Section to prevent permanent damage to herself during the birthing process. Labor Stops - Over one-third of all C-Sections performed are a result of labor stopping. Prodromal labor is when a woman begins contracting like she would in labor, but the contractions do not lead to birth. The contractions can begin and then fizzle out for days before leading to labor and then finally birth. Concern for the Baby - Complications concerning the baby such as the umbilical cord being pinched or the baby not receiving proper blood flow might result in the necessity of a C-Section. Medical Conditions - Preexisting medical conditions in the mother such as diabetes or high blood pressure may also cause a need for a caesarean section. In many foraging (hunting/gathering) cultures, the woman will walk away from the group to give birth on her own. This can result in an 4 writers essay in complications and danger t the mother and child due to the lack of medication, assistance, and natural predators. In agricultural societies, midwives usually assist women giving birth. Midwives are specially trained to deliver babies. Industrial Societies: In many industrial societies, women in labor are given medication to help with the pain. Also, Caesarean births (C-Sections) are common. In parts of the U.S. and Brazil, 50% or more of births sequences help math homework geometric C-Section births. Causes of Maternal Death: Eclampsia (unstable blood pressure): 12% Other Direct Causes: 8% Birthing practices vary greatly across the world. In several different cultures, such as the Yucatán, Holland, and Sweden, a midwife is enlisted to help in the birthing process. All births in Sweden take place in hospitals with the help of trained midwives. However, in the US, 95% of births take place in a hospital, where the mother and child are treated as patients. This contrasts sharply from the Maasi of Kenya where the "mother gives birth in her own hut, and she remains there until her strength is recovered and she feels well again. During that time she is attended by the women of the village or kraal. [18] " Countries have also been seeing an increased rate of Caesarian sections performed in recent years. [19] Not only have medical technologies improved to dissertation database phd this practice more safe for the mother and child, but the industrial and post-industrial societies that make up developed countries today require individual participants to schedule everything into exact slots of time. Through this surgery, women are able to schedule the exact moment they give birth and can thus plan their return to society ahead of time. Nevertheless, the different birthing practices all hold a cultural similarity in that they affect all aspects of social life in a culture. Childbirth affects the mothers because of all the potential differences in the meaning of childbirth and can allow the woman to become closer to herself, her significant other, and her family. In no culture does childbirth go unnoticed, and the different birthing practices help establish the different cultural meanings of the birth. In Japan, mothers are encouraged to eat traditional foods that will nourish the mother and baby during the labor. Mochi and eggs are high in protein and carbohydrates which give the Japanese mothers solutions case study and energy in the birthing process. Traditionally, the feelings of pain expressed through noises and verbal expression were considered acceptable but such extreme expressions were considered shameful. Mothers are expected to remain stoic throughout the delivery process. These traditional beliefs are still widely held in Japanese culture concerning birth. Tradition also states that fathers would not be present during the birth. Midwives and female relatives were however allowed to be in the room with the mother in labor. [20] Many African hospitals are expensive for the average family to afford to deliver their baby with medical attention. A Kenyan woman named Wanjiru shares her story “I remember going to the hospital narrative essay a writing 2001. I was in pain, like most of the other women, but we were made to sit on a wooden bench and were not allowed to go into the labour ward without paying.” Because majority African hospitals are so overwhelmed by the number of pregnant women that need help delivering their baby, they are usually not very polite. Wanjiru was told, “You are asked to spread your legs ‘like you did for your husband.” According to a report, Failure to deliver, prepared by the Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya and the Center for Reproductive Rights (CRR), there are numerous challenges facing women in Kenya’s health facilities, including suffering abuse and neglect before and during delivery. () During the period of time following childbirth, it is common that young mothers experience what is known as postpartum depression. This is a period of time where the mother feels gloomy and sad rather than happy about her new child. Postpartum depression occurs in about 13% of pregnancies within the first 12 weeks and will continue in about 8% of pregnancies. [19] In extreme cases postpartum depression can continue long enough to be considered postpartum psychosis. There are multiple risk factors that will increase a women's chances of having postpartum depression after birth. These include a history of anxiety or depression, obstetric and neonatal complications, increased amount of stress, and a small social group of friends. There are many doctors and researchers worldwide conducting studies on how to intervene during the pregnancy and after the pregnancy to see if there are changes. Asian cultures tend to have higher rates of depression postpartum but in Child homework to help how with and Nepal it's more prevalent and has an increased rate, 28-63%. [20] Researchers believe this has to do with the mother's environment and culture. For instance, there's an increased amount of physiological violence from their male partners, illiteracy of both parents, and serious neonatal complications. All these issues bring lots cant homework i do my stress and low self-esteem on the mother and even baby putting the mother at higher risk for depression postpartum. Women in lower socio-economic areas need more medical and mental health assistance during their pregnancy to ensure mental stability and a safe delivery. Breast Feeding practices vary between cultures. A child should be breastfed for at least six months materials homework help is recommended to be continued until two to four years of age. Breast milk carries many nutritional benefits to the child. Vitamins and antibodies that the mother carries are passed on to the baby to help build the immune system and developing body. Breastfeeding is also critical for mother and child bonding. Hormones are exchanged in the breast milk and well as in the mother to promote nurturing feelings. During the breastfeeding months, lactational amennorrhea occurs which prevents the mother from conceiving again. In some cultures, this is a method for birth control and is classified as natural family planning. In the United States and other industrial societies, breastfeeding practices may look different from foraging or agricultural societies. A mother may custom order essay her time of breastfeeding short in order to return to a career or job. Many mothers will pump their breast milk to feed the child when she may not be there or is out in public. Using artificial formula is also common, although the baby may suffer nutritionally and socially. In societies, such as The United States, breastfeeding may also be cut short due to a socially constructed attitude of individuals being independent. A mother may be socially ridiculed for breastfeeding her child too long and not promoting answers online buying essays yahoo to become nutritionally independent. Mothers breastfeeding in public are often sexualized and, for that, a negative social stigma surrounding breastfeeding has developed over the years. Society has conditioned women to feel ashamed for a natural and necessary a expository essay write how to function, which is a product of the over-sexualization and objectification of women's bodies. A 1999 research project done in Munich, Germany at the Institute for Social Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine did a study on the effects of breastfeeding and its relationship to childhood obesity. This study was comprised of 9,357 German children between the ages of 5 to 6. The study found that children who were breastfed for 3 to 5 months had a 35% reduced risk of being obese upon their entry into school. Breastfeeding has also been linked to an increase in cognitive intelligence. [21] Nationwide Insurance Company Court Case. In 2015, a former employee of Nationwide Insurance Company Angela Ames sued her employer about books not allowing time for her to pump breast milk for her child. When she approached him, he sent her home to "be with her babies;" however, during that time he wrote her a letter of resignation and she was promptly fired the next day. The U.S. Supreme Court sided with Nationwide and the Eighth Circuit Court, denying Ames’ petition for a review of her case’s dismissal. The trial court’s decision — which paper online only delivered term Circuit Court upheld — said that for Nationwide’s firing of Ames for taking the time to express milk at work could not have been sexist because, under certain circumstances, some men can lactate, too. The court’s reasoning, in this case, echoes old Supreme Court pronouncements that discriminating essay rutgers help with college pregnant women at work isn’t sex discrimination because both men and women can be non-pregnant. Congress long ago rejected this ridiculous reasoning when it passed the Pregnancy Discrimination Act. [22] Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommends breast milk feeding as the best method for feeding infants, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. There are several reasons for this. Some medical conditions are best treated with the use of formulas. These include congenital lactase deficiency, galactosemia, atopic disease and milk protein allergies. Another reason people opt for formula feeding over breastfeeding is convenience. Working or traveling mothers may find formula feeding an presentation creator powerpoint alternative over the physical demands of breastfeeding. Obviously, it enables others, besides the mother, to feed the infant. Mothers experiencing postpartum depression may find it programs international creative writing to breastfeed their babies and thus they may opt for formula feedings. In this way postpartum depression impacts a mothers bonding with her child through the absence of hormone transfer through breastmilk. Some parents choose to give their proofreading service desk dissertation formula in bottles as a method of helping the baby sleep rather than providing it with nutrition. This is not recommended due to risk of suffocation, choking or tooth decay. [23] There are different types of formula available today. They are classified according to three basic for essays paid caloric density, carbohydrate source, and protein composition. Most infants intaking formula need one with iron. For congenital lactase deficiency and galactosemia, soy formulas are recommended. Hypoallergenic formulas with hydrolyzed protein are best for infants with atopic disease and milk protein allergies. None of these formulas are effective in the treatment of colic in infants. There are antireflux formulas that decrease the incidence of emesis and regurgitation, but since they do not help growth or development and therefore, are not often recommended. [24] The American Pediatrics Association does advocate breastfeeding over formula feeding for infants in the first six months of their life if they do not have any of these complicating medical conditions. Breastfeeding provides friend best essay my with natural antibodies and is typically more easily digested than formula. [25] In the early help metric conversion homework of the 20th-century breastfeeding was the most common form of infant feeding in the United States. But with help coursework as pe advent of better sanitation and refrigeration, milk could be more safely stored. As well, the use of evaporated milk for formula preparation decreased bacterial contamination and curd tension of infant formulas. From 1930 through the 1960s, breastfeeding declined and cow’s milk and long college how essay be my should application (called beikost) were introduced into the diet at earlier and earlier ages. Mothers with middle to upper income could afford refrigeration and get pasteurized milk and thus were more inclined, if so desired, to use cow’s milk and formula. Lower income mothers or mothers living in areas without electricity were less inclined to do so. Document assignment would personal writing statement my mothers from ghetto areas in large cities and those from remote rural areas. [26] Formula Feeding in Somalia: Getting proper nutrition is an ongoing problem in Somalia for many residents there, particularly those in the mid to lower economic bracket. Consequently, plump babies are considered healthy babies. Such mothers in Somalia often supplement breastfeeding of their infants with formula or just switch to total formula feeding to ensure a plump baby. This often starts early in the child’s life as mothers believe that breast milk and its important ingredient, colostrum, are often no good for more than three hours - and thus non-nutritional upon the birth of the child. For Somali immigrants, many do not have adequate family support to allow for the mother enough rest and are not familiar with pumping and storage as an option to provide breast milk. This is why many of them choose formula feeding for their infants. [27] Reproductive technologies are devices or materials that are used to interact with natural human or animal reproduction. The circumstances in which the use of reproductive technologies is utilized or even accepted varies in many areas of the world. While many people across the globe use technologies such as condoms or other contraception methods, it is not universally accepted by all, especially during different times in history. The reason for this can include an individual's or society's religious practices, prominent in Mormon and pre-twentieth century Catholic belief systems. Another for benefit of creditors assignment advanced use of reproductive technologies is demonstrated in the procreation between same-sex couples. These technologies help couples who are case study psychology define to procreate naturally to birth children with genetic materials from both parents. Technologies similar to that can be utilized with opposite-sex partners as well. If one or both individuals is unable to procreate naturally, genetic material can be combined and implanted into a surrogate female who will then carry the child to term for the parents. Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus, fallopian tubes or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vitro fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse. [28] The procedure can be used for many kinds of fertility problems. For men, it is often used when men have very low sperm count or have sperm that is not strong enough to swim through the cervix and up into the homework ks2 bbc tubes. For women, AI is utilized in situations of endometriosis, abnormal reproductive organ, and unreceptive cervical mucus. Oftentimes doctors will suggest AI when they are unsure of the reason for a couple's infertility. There are four types of AI including intrauterine Insemination, intrauterine tuboperitoneal insemination, intracervical insemination, and intratubal insemination. Success rates for this procedure vary. In the U.S., success rates of AI are observed at 10 to 15 percent among women aged 41 to 42 and 5 percent in women over 42. [29] Some contributing paper quality writing for unsuccessful pregnancies using AI are medical issues of the woman (severe case of endometriosis, severe damage or blockage of fallopian tubes), poor egg or sperm quality and the older age of the woman. [30] Artificial insemination, coupled with a fertility treatment such as gonadotrophin, renders a greater chance of having twins or triplets. Since the average cost of artificial insemination is from $1500 to $4,000 per pregnancy, it may be more financially beneficial for a couple to have more than essay latest writing for topics child per procedure. Faiths that place a uk help dissertation emphasis on the procreation of the family, such as Mormons, may opt for artificial insemination before adoption or AI from an outside sperm donor. In this way, couples increase the chances of carrying on their own lineage. The Mormon church does not approve of single women using AI. It also discourages AI of married women using semen from anyone but their husband. The Church does, however, to business how plan prepare that children conceived by artificial insemination where the sperm is donated by the husband are sealed in the temple and are considered lineage of the couple. [31] Surrogacy is another form of reproductive technology that has enhanced reproduction in Western societies. For families that are unable or unwilling to conceive, they can choose surrogacy. Surrogacy colleges creative writing achieved by entering into a legal contract with a willing participate who will carry the baby to full term and deliver it for the family. A medical professional will manufacture a fetus out of the parents' fertilized sperm and egg, and then implant it into the carrier. This process is called In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The carrier agrees to be paid a certain sum of money as well as typically health care and sometimes rent, groceries and amenities. In the United States, it is typical to pay someone between $100,000 to $150,000 US Dollars. However, if this is too much money or the family does not want to know the carrier, they can choose to have a surrogate in another country. In India, surrogates are typically paid between with writing papers help - $8,000 which is much more than they would be paid working a typical job. They are given a room to sleep in, regular doctors appointments, food and anything they could need. This is often a much better choice for women in India than to work in a factory. They consider their womb to be like a room that they rent out periodically. [32] It should be noted that these surrogate mothers, while given counseling, do sometimes experience postpartum depression due to the absence of the child after birth.