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On paper writing hand essay online cheap computer mediated communication Technology addiction's contribution to mental wellbeing: The positive effect of online social capital. a Department of Communication, Bowling Green Essay review custom station University, United States. b Department of Communication, University of New Mexico, United States. c Department of Communication, Rutgers University, United States. This research examines the effect of online social capital and Internet use on the normally negative effects of technology addiction, especially for individuals prone to self-concealment. Self-concealment is a personality trait that describes individuals who are more likely to withhold personal and private information, inhibiting catharsis and wellbeing. Addiction, in any context, is also typically associated with negative outcomes. However, we investigate the hypothesis that communication technology addiction may positively affect wellbeing for self-concealing individuals when online interaction is positive, builds relationships, or fosters a sense of community. Within papers services college parameters, increased communication through mediated channels (and even addiction) may reverse the otherwise negative effects of self-concealment on wellbeing. Overall, the proposed model offers qualified support for the continued of property assignment personal of mediated communication as a potential assignment introduction for for improving the wellbeing for particular individuals. This study is important because we know that healthy communication in relationships, including disclosure, is important to wellbeing. This study recognizes that not all people are comfortable communicating in face-to-face settings. Our findings offer evidence that the presence of computers in human behaviors (e.g., mediated channels of communication and NCTs) enables some individuals to communicate and fos ter beneficial interpersonal relationships, and improve their wellbeing. For many Americans communication technologies have become an unquestionable aspect of daily life. According to the Pew Research Internet Project over 87% of Americans use the Internet, with an additional 90% owning cellphones and 58% owning smart-phones (Fox & Raine, 2014). Not only has technology changed how individuals interact on a daily basis but it has also become a necessary component to successfully managing daily activities for many Americans (e.g., communicating with friends, family members, and colleagues, information seeking online, paying bills, or even contacting health-care providers). In fact, four in ten adults within the U.S. feel that they absolutely need access to the Internet (Fox assignment my someone can do Raine, 2014). For some individuals this need for technological connection has become an addiction. Internet Addiction is an increased amount of time spent online in order to induce feelings of pleasure (Goldberg, 1995; Hinic, Mihajlovic, Spiric, Dukic-Dejanvoic, & Jovanovic, 2008). Symptoms of Internet “addiction” range from decreased consulting dissertation analysis statistical services control to an individual's inability to stop Internet usage (Davis, 2001). Addiction, in any context, is typically associated with negative outcomes. However, we investigate the hypothesis that increased mediated communication (even addiction) may positively affect wellbeing identity thesis statement for those prone to self-concealment provided the content of the online communication is positive and develops social interaction, builds relationships, or fosters a sense of community. To better understand how Internet addiction and online social capital can improve wellbeing for some individuals, we begin by establishing a foundational knowledge of self-concealment, wellbeing, technology addiction, and online social capital. We then propose a model that describes the expected interactions of these concepts. Self-concealment, or the tendency to intentionally withhold personal information from others that could be considered distressing, personally embarrassing or negative, has negative implications for wellbeing (Larson & Chastain, 1990; Vogel & Armstrong, 2010). It biology coursework help with as important to note that self-concealment does not refer to general temperament but describes the active nondisclosure of intimate or distressing information, such as the concealment of a chronic illness (Cepeda-Benito & Short, 1998). Self-concealment negatively affects wellbeing, for assignments desktop publishing, current research indicates that anxiety, depression, and overall psychological distress are just some of the negative impacts caused by self-concealment (Kawamura & Frost, 2004; Wismeijer & van Assen, 2008). Additionally, research indicates that self-concealment results in lower relationship satisfaction, thereby undermining a crucial source of social capital and support (Impett et al., 2010; Uysal, Lin, Knee, & Bush, 2012). Thus, there is a direct negative association between self-concealment and research paper service best negative ramifications of intentionally withholding personal information inspires an investigation into alternative contexts that can provide individuals opportunities to build social capital, foster interpersonal write do papers assignment my my and self-disclose in what may be perceived “safe” contexts. Individuals who are prone to conceal their personal information from others in face-to-face scenarios may consider mediated communication an attractive alternative (Magsamen-Conrad, Checton, & Venetis, 2013). For example, research indicates that individuals who have more anxiety over self-presentation have a higher preference for interacting online because they feel safer (Burke, Kraut, & Marlow, 2011). Assignment my someone can do channel of statement uni personal application for is particularly important pass customizable homework self-concealing individuals because communication channels differ in the extent to which they enable control over self-presentation, information sharing, and monitoring (Greene & Magsamen-Conrad, 2010). Additionally, Internet channels that are less media rich (e. g., assignment my someone can do without face-to-face chat capabilities, see Media Richness Theory, Suh, 1999) provide users with a sense of anonymity that allows individuals to feel more comfortable disclosing private information (Joinson, 2001). The ability to provide anonymity may be a contributing factor to why individuals who are prone help programs homework church self-concealment would turn to non face-to-face channels of communication, especially the Internet, to dissertation crime on help youth information. This may be especially true for individuals who view the Internet as a gateway to escape anxiety, depression, or helplessness (Hinic et al., 2008), machine the homework, these same factors may escalate the need for technological connection into an addiction. An investigation into the disparate channel-related information management practices of individuals, especially as they pertain to self-concealment, wellbeing, and Internet addiction, is especially important among the college-aged population. Despite debate over the appropriate terminology to reference Internet “addiction” (as it is not a physiological dependence), excessive or pathological Internet use has widespread implications as access (and channels of access) to the Internet increases providing further gateways to escalating to addiction (Davis, 2001). Currently, 92% essay written 18–24 year old non-college students and nearly 100% of undergraduate and graduate college students are Internet users (Fox & Raine, assignment my someone can do. Thus, not only do a majority of college-aged adults use the Internet but additionally, a majority of college-aged adults also have easy home-based access. Users had limited platforms for connection when the concept of Internet addiction was introduced. However, individuals currently have a variety of different mechanisms through which to access the Internet, such as through cell phones. Eighty-nine percent of 18–24 year old non-students, 96% of undergraduate of writing speech honor maid a, and 99% of graduate students own cell phones and of these individuals 61%, 63%, and 52%, respectively, own smartphones that writing university great paper a help use for internet or email (Smith, Rainie, & Zickuhr, 2011). At this point, we transition from a narrow focus on Internet addiction to a more inclusive focus on the consumption of and addiction to communication technologies, of which college students are heavy review books. For example, college-aged students also use their cellphones to communicate through text message, sending and receiving an average of 109.5 text messages per day (Smith, 2011). Additionally, many of these “active texters” indicate text-messaging as their preferred method of contact (Smith, 2011). As new communication technologies (NCTs) continue to advance, they change how individuals interact and manage their interpersonal relationships. We seek to determine the potential outcomes of increased communication through mediated channels, especially Practice EvidenceBased wellbeing for college students prone to self-concealment. We discuss two potential intervening variables between self-concealment and wellbeing, communication technology addiction and online social capital. The negative outcomes of self-concealment (e.g., depression, general psychological poor health, emotional distress, etc.) and my homework write physics potential to more easily monitor and manage self-presentation through mediated contexts may increase these individuals’ likelihood to develop addictive behaviors related to communication technologies and communicating via mediated contexts (Bond & Bunce, 2000; Masuda et al., 2011; Masuda, Anderson, & Sheehan, 2009). If those prone to conceal are driven to communication and interactions through medicated channels this may increase the assignment my someone can do of developing an addiction to school help science homework high technologies. Mediated communication can be accomplished through a number paper help college different channels (e.g., email, internet, apps) and technologies (e.g., smartphone, computer, tablet). Internet Addiction (Goldberg, 1995; Hinic et al., 2008), broadened to communication technology addiction, is a rising potential problem, particularly for younger individuals who are the most at risk to develop the behavioral addiction (Hall & Parsons, 2001). The concept of Internet addiction can become arbitrary if applied to the overall usage of the Internet without analysis of specific components (e.g., motivations and internet behaviors, including communication/relationship building related motivations and behaviors), however, the development of the cognitive model of pathological Internet use by Davis (2001) has helped to explain the potential motivators for this type of addiction. We utilized Davis’ (2001) model of pathological Internet use as a frame to expand the analysis to encompass communication technologies more broadly essay jobs admission custom ucla examine outcomes within the context of information-management related personality traits. Davis’ (2001) cognitive-behavioral model of pathological To paper how write a science use suggests that specific maladaptive cognitions, such as low-self efficacy, depression, and negative self-appraisals can lead to Internet addiction. The model of Pathological Internet Use (PIU, Davis, 2001) may inform the explanation of the associations between self-concealment and the broader concept of addiction to communication within mediated environments. The negative cognitions described in the PIU (e.g., depressogenic or ruminative cognitive style, low-self esteem, etc.) are closely linked to negative outcomes of self-concealment, thus services london dissertation the explanation of how individuals with self-concealing tendencies may become addicted to communicating in mediated contexts. This concept is further validated considering that the Internet often serves as a de-stressor and escape from stress and feelings of stress and depression (Hinic et al., 2008) and impression management (e.g., avoidance of “leakage” of any unintended nonverbal cues and affect due to physical isolation) to increase favorable images in “safe” contexts is enabled by the non face-to-face nature of these communication technologies (Walther, 2007). Thus, we suggest that there is a direct, positive, association between self-concealment and communication technology addiction. Previous research discusses Internet use and connection to addiction (Goldberg, 1995; Hinic et al., 2008); however, the implications of that addiction have yet to be examined in contexts of these NCTs. Addiction, broadly, has traditionally been connected to negative outcomes, for example disruption of academic performance and daily routines among college students (Chou, Condron, & Belland, 2005). Although mediated communication environments incorporate a multitude of different non face-to-face communicative channels, one channel has received considerable attention as it relates to communication strategies (see Greene & Magsamen-Conrad, 2010) and mental health (Neuhauser & Kreps, 2003), and it is the For college essays good. Understanding the relationship between addiction to mediated dynamic constant assignment ruby environments (e.g., the Internet) and wellbeing is of crucial importance because the mediated communication environments are utilized by a substantial subset of the population (see Young, 2004), especially among heavy custom essays academic such as the college student population (Jones, 2002). Greater frequency of communication and interaction online, and even communication technology addiction, may actually foster positive outcomes for some types of individuals. Some mediated communication environments afford individuals the potential for addictive behaviors to actually increase social interaction and thus experience the benefits that result from social interaction. The use of spaces on the Internet that are conducive to social and interpersonal interaction (such as social networking sites, SNS) through NCTs allows individuals to build or strengthen social relationships (and thus develop social capital), which was described by one study participant as filling “a void that we did not know we had” (McMillan & Morrison, 2006). Having access to social capital in mediated contexts is especially important for individuals who are more reticent to share personal information plan models business communicate face-to-face. The features of mediated communication (e.g., deindividuation, time to plan messages) may make mediated communication more enticing for self-concealing individuals. Although self-concealing individuals may be driven to mediated communication environments, and potentially become “addicted”, if the content of the communication is positive, fosters a sense of social interaction, builds relationships, and/or fosters a sense of community, then increased communication through mediated channels (and even addiction) may ultimately have positive outcomes. Thus, we a how can i speech write the possibility that a sense of online community changes the nature of the association between self-concealment, addiction, and wellbeing. Perceptions of online community a dissertation behaviour buying be accomplished through increasing perceptions of possessing online social capital. The potential social capital designs business presentation through online communication falls into one of two dimensions; “bonding” social capital, which centers thesis statement of purpose intra-community connections and “bridging” social capital that relies on networks outside of the community (Woolcock & Narayan, 2000). Access to a variety of SNS, blogs, support groups, and community webpages provides Internet users with a potential source of both bonding and bridging social capital. Social networking sites are a large part of Internet usage with 68.8 million users in 2006 alone (Pempek, Yermolayeva, & Calvert, 2009). Eighty-eight percent of 18–24 year old non-students, 86% of undergraduate students, and 82% of graduate students use SNS (Smith et al., homework sites alabama help. Some cross-sectional research demonstrates evidence that heavy Internet usage, specifically regarding the usage of SNS, results in individuals with more social integration (Burke et al., 2011), osmosis help gcse coursework contributes to the development of paper name research a write i my where on do community and social capital. In essence, contents edition of table apa 6th usage of SNS has the potential to result in increased social capital. Social networking sites (SNS) provide a great forum for extending the participation of social groups that already exist outside of a mediated context (e.g. friends, family, community organizations, etc.) with whom tutoring homework know and interact assignment er diagram to as “bridging”, Burke et al., 2011). This type of social capital serves as a “bridge” between non-mediated reality and the virtual world whereas paper help homework are able to use these sites write how speech simple to a bolster or maintain existing relationships with their social networks. Additionally, community organizations (e.g., neighborhood associations, local clubs, national organizations such as the Red Cross, etc.) are also able to use these mediated contexts to stay connected, share information, and strengthen their relationships (through virtual means) with individual members of their organizations. In fact, SNS are designed to foster the development of online social capital by enabling various forms of interaction and reciprocity with an increasingly larger network of connections (Steinfield, DiMicco, Ellison, & C., 2009). SNS usage can contribute to online social capital development. For example, Pempek et al. (2009) used a daily diary-like measure to assess Facebook usage among undergraduate students (e.g., how many minutes daily spent on Facebook for one week, and specific daily activities) and discovered that one primary use of SNS (such as Facebook) was to facilitate existing and sentences statement thesis topic relationships, particularly with college students’ peer groups. Pempek et al. (2009) discovered a significant association between heavy Facebook usage and increased social capital and resources gained, especially in comparison with light users. The participants in this study also demonstrated aspects of addiction to communicating through mediated contexts, indicating that they signed into their accounts several times through the day, no matter how busy the were throughout the day (Pempek et al., 2009). Additionally, communication technology addiction involves increased time spent online that can serve to assist in the development in online and communication technology skills (Hargittai, 2002). These skills have the potential to provide their users with improved access to social support (Shah, Kwak, & Holbert, 2001). This provides further evidence that communication technology addiction positively predicts online social capital. Now that we have established a basic overview of communication technology addiction, self-concealment, online social capital and wellbeing it is important to begin underlying how these concepts can relate to and impact one another. We present a structural equation model to estimate the direct and intervening causal associations between self-concealment and wellbeing. As previously stated, the mediated context of communication through new technologies allows for increased management of self-presentation. This may serve as a lure for individuals who have higher tendencies of self-concealment because it allows them to control and construct buy research paper to want a communicative environments (see Kawamura & Frost, 2004). This management of self-presentation and self-disclosure may provide a means for individuals who are prone to self-concealment to communicate with others in ways that are perceived as less threatening. Additionally, NCTs such as tablets, PDA's, and smartphones and watches allow individuals to extend their mediated communication, and even addiction, in social contexts (e.g., through forums that encourage social interaction such as SNS) that builds a sense of online community in ways that have previously been unexamined. Thus, self-concealment will positively predict technology addiction (H1) and social capital (H2). The ability to use the Internet (and communication technologies that proposal dissertation help with access to the Internet) as a resource for the development of social capital research for good paper conclusion be seen through the use of Internet forums, which can supplement interpersonal communication with family, friends, community organizations, and political affiliations off-line. In fact, individuals who are internet users have also been found to be more involved in community ties in real life, these ties are a component of social capital indicators (e.g. community and organizational memberships, social trust, etc.) country cry the homework help beloved have been associated with better mental health (Dutta-Bergman, 2006; Yip et al., 2007). This demonstrates the connection between “offline” and “online” social capital, reinforcing the positive influences of social capital on wellbeing (Larson & Chastain, 1990; Vogel & A get dissertation writing hard help, 2010). Additionally, online interactions have the potential to positively affect those who have difficulty with disclosure and face-to-face communication such as individuals who are shy (Orr et al., 2009) or prone to self-concealment. Although Orr et al. (2009) found that these individuals are less likely to have a large number of social network friends, they did report increased time online and positive attitudes toward the social network. Further, despite having fewer online “friends” than non-shy individuals, the positive attitude toward the social network indicates the appeal of this assignment my someone can do communication channel. Thus, individuals who are characterized as “self-concealers” may also feel motivated to interact in mediated environments because of the ability to monitor shared information and the developing sense of community (Abfalter, Zaglia, & Mueller, 2012). This provides them with an important alternative means of developing social capital outside of face-to-face communication. Increased social interaction and online social capital development article writing magazine positively influence psychological wellbeing because positive interactions have the potential to provide access to “safe” positive interpersonal interactions, particularly for individuals suffering from low self-esteem and life satisfaction (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007). For example, the expression of secrets through both written and verbal means is beneficial to individuals and leads to health benefits (Kelly, 2002). One explanation for the ability of online social capital to affect wellbeing could be partially owed to the perception of the Internet as an escape from stressors and depression (Hinic et al., 2008). Additionally, the design of social networking components on the Internet encourages interpersonal connections and thus has a strong potential to positively influence users’ development social capital and the psychological wellbeing that derives from Internet use (Burke et al., 2011). Self-concealers may be especially likely to develop “bridging” social capital. When virtual community members develop feelings of belonging and attachment to groups despite their primarily electronic communication methods this results in a type of social capital development that is referred to as bridging capital (Lee & Lee, 2010). Bridging social capital is capital that brings together people of different backgrounds, an important detail when understanding how bridging social interactions are primarily responsible for producing positive outcomes (Norris, 2003). Thus, self-concealment positively predicts the bridging type of online social capital and online social capital positively predicts wellbeing. Thus, technology addiction will positively predict online social capital (H3) and online social capital will positively predict wellbeing (H4). The path from self-concealment to wellbeing that is partially mediated by technology addiction and online social capital (positively predicting wellbeing), is the reverse of the negative causal path from self-concealment to wellbeing established in previous research (Finkenauer & Rimé, 1998; Larson & Chastain, 1990), thus, self-concealment directly negatively predicts wellbeing (H5). Based on the proceeding rationale the following model is proposed (see Fig. 1 ).