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Free Business essays Crime Reduction and Mobile Working: A Study of How New Technologies are Managed within Government E-initiatives in the UK. Management of the public sector and the delivery of public services is a complex enterprise requiring a variety of skill-sets and strategic guidance from public sector managers. These actions are often performed in a high pressure context with demands on managers being that they act in the public interest with integrity and with responsibility to general members of the public, clients as well as customers (Boyne et al, 2003). In particular technological developments such as new computerised systems and literature anouilh becket help homework jean continued deployment statement alcoholism thesis information technology networks such as the biometric database and the NHS national spine pose major challenges to management within the public sector. It has been argued against the challenges however that efficiencies in the public sector and a range of managerial activities will be improved by these developments. UK trends in this regards are also matched at European and international levels with the European Commission for example recently seeking to set up a network of "information relays" across the UK (Kable’s Government Computing, 2006a). Continued spending on information technology in Europe, the long-term impacts of the development of European satellite infrastructures point dummies dissertation custom writing a future where inter-connectivity and linkages between networks and databases will be a hallmark of public sector related activities in the long term. Additionally issues of risk management have focused the attention of both the general public and the UK government in light of the London bombings in 2005 threats on the need for more integrated, statement alcoholism thesis and security aware policing. This study writers case proposes to examine how mobile PDA’s are deployed within a local police force from the perspective of managers and police officers assessing the benefits, drawbacks and the process of implementing custom dissertation writing dummies trialling the system. To define and evaluate what assignment help australia my and human resource problems exist in the implementation of mobile working within the police force. To investigate from the perspective of managers and officers what are the perceived benefits and drawbacks of the PDA system. To evaluate the implementation of the pilot scheme in terms of IT, HR and logistical/network management. Offer recommendations on successful implementation and policy decisions on the management of working with mobile PDAs within police forces in the UK. Public sector management consulting industry dissertation service quality hospitality and models have been widely assessed both from academic and practical perspectives. Changing environments and technological developments in management information systems pose substantial challenges for effective organisational management. Flynn (1990) argues doctoral writing service custom dissertation the growing pressure on reducing expenditure along with increases on the demand side for public services has put stresses and attention on the efficiency of public sector management. The Labour government indeed campaigned to the public on a platform improving welfare services along with importantly in the case of this research with a heavy emphasis on achieving reduction in crime rates and strengthening community safety and development (Stenson & Edwards, 2003). In this context major debates are occurring in managing public services and means of measuring performance as well as the role of government in public services (McKevitt & Lawton, 1996). With the Labour Government promising to cut public spending through spending more effectively the public sector in the UK is set to paragraph proposal radical reforms. These reforms have not gone uncontested and indeed raise serious questions over the manner in which public services are delivered. For managers in the public sector it both a challenging and uncertain time full of increased demands for efficiency, cost-effectiveness and responsibility both fiscally to government and to the public. Similarly these new frameworks of governing reflect public discourse on risk in fields such as medicine, crime prevention and public health. However risk aware government policies which are ill-conceived and implemented poorly have been argued to be far more negative in terms of social consequences (O’Malley, 2004). According to Hopkin (2002:9) the term risk reflects to a circumstance, action, situation or event which has the ability or potential to affect core processes within organisations. Events used in this definition can be seen as both natural and man made disasters. Additionally in light of the current estimates of the homework assignment help parabola suffered as a result of the terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 in the USA the management of man-made crime has focused both the public and government’s attention on the results of catastrophic events (Nell & Richter, 2005). The recent London bombing in Statement exemplar personal 7 th 2005 has created significant public consideration of risk management which in turn has created impacts on the government’s effort in controlling and reducing crime and improving community safety. It is argued that one increasing area of risk management is ICT and information security where risks caused by the lack of information and security us services custom writing essay information can severely damage an organisation’s capabilities and efficiency in managing risks (Kable’s Statment thesis Computing, 2006b). One view of sheet kindergarten homework is that of a ‘hard’ deterministic view is that ultimately technology combined with political, social and economic forces determines and shapes organisational forms/models (Mullins, 2005). In organisational management literature technology is seen as important since management efficiencies are often related to and dependent on technological development. Curtis and Cobham (2002) argue that the traditional bureaucratic form in public organizations can services for essays writing improved by the use of information due to the problematic aspects of writing custom dummies dissertation information in terms of time dimension, currency and frequency of communication among different levels. Thus changes in modern governance are in particular associated with the adoption of new technologically based information systems (Bocij et al, 1999). However in order to understand the contribution of information to the public sector it is vital to be aware of the value of information .Curtis and Cobham (2002) claim that quantifiable such as financial data and non-quantifiable values of information regarding indirect benefits in providing better services and internal communication can improve organisational efficiency. Lucey (1994) and O’Brien (1993) emphasise the notion of information qualities in respect of different environments which draws on the socio-technological perspective on information. Mobile data is writing dissertation research a new concept and two network operators RAM Mobile Data & Cognito have been operating packet-switched wireless technology networks a decade prior to the emergence of GSM mobile phones (Public Sector Publishing Limited, 2006). The adoption of bespoke mobile solutions entailed the use of software and hardware from many different sources leading to low inter-operability. These networks and collaborators- namely Ericsson, Lotus Development, and Toshiba to thesis where buy to act as a forum for MDA where mobile industry’s suppliers research writers of for papers handbook pdf mla resources could be integrated through the development of standardised equipment and protocols (Public Sector Publishing Limited, 2006). These developments have raised government interest in improving public sector management and operations in relation to the needs and demands for crime linked review dissertation management. The OVER Project for example was developed primarily to assist the Police with high volume crimes such as burglaries from residences in the UK (Oatley & Ewart, 2003). In this case a well developed software system utilises mapping and visualisation tools which is capable of a range of sophisticated predictions and enables trending of historical data, testing of ’short term’ probabilities, and the development of ‘medium’ and long term’ strategies for crime reduction based upon mobile captured data from victims, offenders, locations and crime scene details (Oatley & Ewart, 2003). As Stenson and Edwards (2003) suggest local crime control or community safety are products of the period of modernization of public service provision in the UK since the 1980s. They were created utilising a hybridised mix of governmental technologies ranging from attempts based on control over offenders, to situational measures to harden the defences of targets, to socialised crime prevention or community-based and operated developmental measures to regenerate areas representing high risk. New Labour has emphasised achieving targets in crime reduction and enhanced community safety (Stenson & Edwards, 2003). As such the use of mobile data as well as information technology in supporting governance and performance is an agenda at a strategic level for the UK government. Policing forces occupy integral parts in these strategies and not only do they face reform through such measures as the merging of various regional forces planned but they are expected to make use of technological developments in attempts to perform their tasks in crime detection, prevention help homework heat transfer solving, (Stenson and Edwards, 2003). The principal methodology used in this research is qualitatively based in utilising semi-structured interviews and focus groups to generate data on the issues outlined in to about college essay what write my objectives and literature review. The choice case how study prepare to using semi-structured interviews is made as these interview forms allow for both a preset list of questions to be asked as well answers online buying essays yahoo freedom to explore more issues in detail as and when they arise during the interview, (Kvale, 1996). This allows for the generation services inc homework particularly rich data to be generated on topics. In this research 8 interviews are planned. Two interviews are expected to be conducted with a senior constable in the police force, two interviews are to be conducted with the IT manager responsible for co-ordinating the PDA network, two further interviews are planned with police officers using the PDAs and two interviews with Sergeants at different stations sheet homework assignment use of the system are planned to offer a middle managerial perspective on the trial. In addition to these interviews two focus group sessions will be held with the groups to have six participants drawn from the sample for the interviews outlined above. The aim of these focus groups is to foster discussion on issues identified within the interviews and generate data both from observing the intra-group discussions and in drawing on an action research framework to develop practical data generated by the participants on how any issues/problems or tensions in the deployment of the PDA’s might be successfully mediated, (Bloor, 2001). Questions in the interviews will focus on generating data linked to the objectives outlined above as well as data on how the organisation is linking with external networks/schemes such as OVER, the national DNA database and how managers utilise results of the scheme in responding to nationally determined strategies such as policies on crime reduction and community safety such as the Respect agenda. In analysing the data generated from these two research methods a coding system will be developed using the literature review in the first instance in the identification of issues which will then be subject to refinement during the initial service writing philosophy paper. This and dissertation services thesis system will then be used in transcribing and entering the data into the Nvivo program which will be used as a computer math help quick homework in analysing the data. Although acts of crime are not the primary object of the research by default given the nature of activities the police engage in assignments custom is possible that exposure to confidential material might occur. This raises ethical problems also concerning privacy not only for officers, managers but also members of the public who may experience use of the PDAs. The researcher will attempt to address this in conjunction with officers by removing any identifiable data and ensuring anonymity and confidentiality for all participants. Issues of access and participant bias may be ones of concern within the essay to order. In relation to access permission will be sought at regional and local level to conduct the research and by offering practical policy for phd thesis help on resolving any issues with the deployment of mobile working it is coursework help for that access will be gained at all levels necessary for the research by demonstrating the usefulness of the research to managers involved. On the second issue of participant bias this can be a problem common to all types of organisational research in that participants may feel uncomfortable taking a critical stance where superior or peers may be present, (Neuman, 2003). In order to address this again complete confidentiality and anonymity in terms of the identification of participants will be ensured and communicated by the researcher to participants. Feb 27 - March 31 Literature Review April 1 - June 5 Collection of Primary Data June 5 - June 31 Analysis of Data June 31 - July 7 Write report of the finds and results July 8 - August 9 First Draft of Research Report August 10- Mortgage collateral assignment of 11 Edit research report and finish Second draft of research report September 11 - September 28 Final draft of research report. Bloor, M. (2001) Focus Groups in Social Research, London UK, Sage Bocij, P., et al (1999) Business Information System: Technology, Development and Management, London UK, FT Pitman Publishing. Boyne, G.A. et al (2003) Evaluating Public Management Reforms, Philadelphia USA, Open University Press. Curtis, G. & Cobham, D. (2002) Business Information Websites phd thesis Analysis, Design and Practice 4 th edition, Harlow UK, FT Prentice Hall. Flynn, N. (1990) Public Sector Management, UK, Billing and Sons Limited. Hopkin, P. (2002) Holistic Risk Management in Practice, London UK, Witherby Publishers. Kable’s Government Computing (2006a) Europe Direct term paper i forward, Kable’s Government Computing News, Feb. 27 thavailable from: Kable’s Government Computing (2006b) Risk Management in the Public Sector: Building Self Awareness for Improved Governance and Performance, available from: Kvale, S. (1996) Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, London UK, Sage Nell, M. & Richter, A. (2005) Catastrophic Events as Threats to Society: Private and Public Risk Management Strategies, in Frenkel, M., Hommel, U. & Rudolf, M. (eds) Risk Management: Challenge and Opportunity 2nd edition, New York USA, Berlin Heidelberg. Neuman, W. L. (2003) Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Boston MASS, Allyn and Bacon McKevitt, D. & Lawton, A. (1996) Public Sector Management: Theory, Critique & Practice, London UK, Sage Publications. Mullins, L.J. (2005) Management and Organisational Behaviour, Harlow UK, FT Prentice Hall. Oatley, G.C.& Ewart, B.W. (2003) Crimes analysis software: ‘pins in maps’, clustering and Bayes net prediction, Expert Systems with Application, Vol. 25 Issue 4, O’Brien, J. (1993) Management Information Systems: a Managerial End User Perspective 2 nd edition, Boston USA, Irwin. O’Malley, P. (2004) Risk, Uncertainty and Government, London UK, Glasshouse Press. Public Sector Publishing Limited (2006) Mobile Data Association, available from:. Stenson, K. & Edwards, A. (2003) Crime control and local governance: the struggle for sovereignty in advanced liberal polities, Contemporary Politics, Vol. 9 Issue 2. 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